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Craig County

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Craig County, Oklahoma

The Lundy Site, 34CG15

Stone ear spools and arrowheads from the Lundy site

Ear spools, pottery and owl effigy pipe from the Lundy site
(photo courtesy Oklahoma Anthropological Society).

The Lundy site, 34CG15, lies on a ridge between two creeks in Craig County. The site was brought to the attention of of Gilcrease Museum archaeologist, Gregory Perino, in 1969 by a collector who found pottery and human skeletal remains after a bulldozer was used to clear timber at the foot of the ridge.

During two excavations in 1960 and 1970, a cemetery with at least 19 burials was excavated. The artifacts from the graves and the materials collected from the surfact indicate the Lundy site is likely a Spiro phase occupation. The Spiro phase lasted some 200 years in eastern Oklahoma between AD 1200 and 1400 and is related to the the greater Mississippian tradition throughout southeastern North America in which mound centers inhabited by a ruling elite held sway over smaller farming villages. The Harlan site, the Spiro Mounds site and the Norman site in Oklahoma are all related to this Mississippian tradition.

An analysis of the skeletal material showed that the people buried at the Lundy site were likely related to one another. An extra tooth on the left side of the lower jaw of one-third of the examined dental remains were all similarly shaped. Also a third of the adults showed signs of spondylosis of the spine which may be an inherited condition. The skeletal analysis showed that the men were from 5'4" to 5'6" while the measurable female was probably around 5'2".

The Lundy site is unusual in some respects. It is among the farthest northerly Spiro phase sites known to us today. Also, although the site had an associated cemetery which would normally indicate a village site, no house patterns were uncovered in the excavations. The site had been plowed for many years so perhaps the traces of houses had been destroyed. However, no pottery was found except that found with the burials. Villagers from this time period used pottery extensively for cooking and storing food. The presence of many hide scrapers and knives led the archaeologist who excavated at the site to conclude that the Lundy site was occupied only seasonally by people who were hunting deer and processing their meat and hides. He assumed their village to be at another location.

Preforms and spearpoint from cache at the Lundy site.

Cache of shaped preforms and one spear point from the Lundy site (photo courtesty Oklahoma Anthropological Society).

Bulletin of the Oklahoma Anthropological Society, "The Lundy Site, Craig County, Northeast Oklahoma" by Gregory Perino, Vol. XX, 1971.
Bulletin of the Oklahoma Anthropological Society, "The Lundy Site, Human Osteology" by Jane Buikstra, Michael Vadeboncouer, and Gary Behrend, Vol. XXII, 1973.

Number of Prehistoric Sites in Craig County Identified to Time Period


Paleo = ?-8,000 BP / Archaic = 8,000-2,000 BP / Woodland = 2,000-1,000 BP / Village 1000-500 BP
BP (before present)


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