Modern day flint-knapper, Bobby Nickey, Guymon,
demonstrates the craft.
For some 2,000 years, the Pumpkin Creek site served as a
workshop for the production of tools. It is believed that
small groups of men came to the site, stayed long enough to
make some spearpoints and knives, and then moved on.
Dramatic changes occurred during the period from 9,000 to
7,500 years ago -- the time when the Pumpkin Creek site was
used. The climate was growing dryer. The giant Bison antiquus
slowly evolved into a smaller bison called Bison occidentalis.
This evolution would finally lead to the bison we know today
and was probably related to the warming, drying conditions
on the continent. The prairies moved eastward into formerly
forested areas. By 7,000 BP (Before Present), western Oklahoma
was virtually a desert. The people who used the ridge near
Pumpkin Creek no longer visited the site.
The Pumpkin Creek site has been studied from time to time
by several archeologists over a period of 30 years. The site
was rediscovered in the 1970's by an artifact collector who
showed it to his brother. The two of them collected the site
and contacted the State Archeologist at the Oklahoma Archeological
Survey. The State Archeologist and one of the collectors,
who was also a member of the Oklahoma
Anthropological Society, eventually wrote a scientific
paper about the site. His collection has been donated to the
Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum
of Natural History. Another collector has also allowed
archeologists to examine his recent collections from the Pumpkin
Creek site and eventually another report will be issued by