BEN
BOTANICAL ELECTRONIC NEWS
ISSN 1188-603X


No. 374 March 6, 2007 aceska@telus.net Victoria, B.C.
Dr. A. Ceska, P.O.Box 8546, Victoria, B.C. Canada V8W 3S2

HARRIET NAHANEE (1935-2007), ABORIGINAL ELDER AND ACTIVIST

A community is in mourning following the death of a great- grandmother who fought to defend aboriginal rights and the environment. Harriet Nahanee will be remembered as the first person to die as a result of protesting development around the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver/Whistler, British Columbia.

Harriet Nahanee, an aboriginal elder and activist, died Sunday, Februay 24, 2007, at the age of 71. She had recently been released from the Surrey Pretrial Centre after serving a two week jail sentence for contempt of court for disobeying a court order made in a civil proceeding in which she was not named as a party.

Harriet was one of numerous local people who congregated at a Sea to Sky Highway construction site [the highway connects Vancouver, B.C., with the 2010 Winter Olympic sites in Whistler] to demonstrate their displeasure with the government decision to blast an overland route through the sensitive Eagleridge Bluffs ecosystem, rather than build a much less obtrusive tunnel.

No one was charged with any criminal offence as a result of the protest demonstration. Rather, according to the anachronisitic British Columbia method of dealing with such matters, the corporate contractors commenced a civil lawsuit and obtained an injunction restraining anyone from being in the vicinity of the work site. Harriet and others were accused of contempt of court when they ignored the order, and they were sanctioned accordingly, in a process described by another B.C. jurist as "officially induced abuse of process", the use of civil proceedings for a collateral criminal objective.

Ironically, 71 year old Harriet Nahanee, a gentle soul, frail and in ill health, spent more time in prison than a serial convicted sex offender, a middle aged teacher who sexually exploited his students and who was recently sentenced to "house arrest" for his crimes.

Did Harriet Nahanee's punishment fit the "crime" of attempting to speak out against the desecration of the environment?

Did jailing her, a respected aboriginal elder, do anything to enhance respect for the courts or for the rule of law?

In a separate trial, 78 year old Betty Krawczyk, an environmental activist previously involved in blockades at Clayoquot Sound, the Elaho and Walbran Valleys, was convicted of criminal contempt of court for her non-violent passive resistance at Eagleridge Bluffs Final sentencing arguments were heard February 19, 2007 with the crown recommending a 9-15 month prison sentence based on Betty's previous contempt of court convictions and her 3 arrests at Eagleridge. Yesterday (March 5, 2007), 78 year old Betty Krawczyk was sentenced to 10 months in prison. The sentencing was announced in the bullet-proof "Air India" courtroom!

Gary Lewis wrote in Menziesia, Summer 2001:

"The outcrop complex at Eagleridge represents a unique and diverse ecosystem in the Lower Mainland and in British Columbia. The diverse topographic and environmental characteristics of these outcrops maintain rare vegetation associations and rare species. The ecological processes which occur on outcrops are also unique. Successful maintenance of biodiversity within BC will depend on the protection of rock outcrops. The Eagleridge outcrop complex is unique in the Lower Mainland and should be protected from further destruction and degradation from development and other human activities."

Blasting of the Eagleridge Bluffs started in spring 2006.

Sources:


STATEMENT BY ADRIANE CARR, DEPUTY LEADER OF THE GREEN PARTY OF CANADA REGARDING THE DEATH OF HARRIET NAHANEE

March 1, 2007
Statement made to the media conference held at 10:00 am, Native Friendship Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia

Harriet Nahanee was a heroine. Despite her own ill health she put herself on the front line to protect the integrity and the health of mother Earth. She rightly opposed the destruction of a rare and beautiful place in First Nation's territory and tried her best to stop the bulldozers from destroying Eagleridge Bluffs. What more important purpose is there in life than to try to stop activities that destroy our precious planet, which is the source and sustenance of all life?

The BC Supreme Court dealt with her brave act of peaceful civil disobedience with undue harshness. The judge was informed about Harriet's ill health yet convicted her of contempt of court and sentenced her to two weeks in jail. I believe Harriet's time in the Surrey jail contributed to the rapid deterioration of her health leading to her death.

The harsh sentencing of Harriet has not made people more respectful of our court system. Instead, it has prompted people to feel that our courts are inequitable and insensitive.

People will continue in Harriet's footsteps to stand firmly and peacefully in defense of our planet. I hope that Harriet's death prompts the courts to change how they deal with such non-violent, consciencious acts of civil disobedience, and recognize that Harriet, Betty Krawczyk and other environmental protesters act not in contempt of court but with contempt for government decisions that allow the destruction of our environment.

The Green Party of Canada honours the life and the brave, principled actions of Harriet Nahanee.

Adriane Carr Deputy Leader, Green Party of Canada

The Green Party of Canada supports the call for a full inquiry into the circumstances leading to the death of Harriet Nahanee.


KEY TO THE NATIVE AND INTRODUCED HIERACIUM (ASTERACEAE) IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST OF NORTH AMERICA

From: Linda M. Wilson, University of Idaho [lwilson@uidaho.edu]

INTRODUCTION

The name Hieracium comes from the Greek 'hierax', meaning hawk; allegedly keen-sighted hawks of yore ate the sap of the brightly colored plants to sharpen their eyesight. In North America, invasive hawkweeds are an eyesore - and they are among the most troublesome weeds in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) (Wilson et al. 1997). The first invasive species, Hieracium aurantiacum, arrived in the region as recently as fifty years ago, probably from the western expansion of infestations from eastern Canada and the US during or shortly after the Second World War. There are now about 14 species of invasive hawkweeds in the PNW. Rapid spread of hawkweed has been possible because much of the land in British Columbia, coastal and northeastern Washington, northern Idaho, and northwestern Montana is considered susceptible to invasion by these aggressive weeds.

Hawkweeds are in the Tribe Lactuceae of the Family Asteraceae, having all strap-shaped (ligulate) flowers and a milky latex in stems and leaves. The genus Hieracium is divided into 3 subgenera (Strother 2006). Subgenus Chionoracium (formerly subgenus Stenotheca) represents the + 20 native species in North America. Subgenus Hieracium occurs in both North America and Europe. Two native species occur in the PNW; six species from central and eastern Europe also occur in the region. Subgenus Pilosella, entirely European in origin, represents most of the invasive species in the Pacific North West. A new species, Hieracium glomeratum, yellowdevil hawkweed, introduced from Europe, was identified from southeastern British Columbia in 2001. This was the first report of this species in North America (Wilson et al. 2006). An expanded key with descriptions of all the Pacific Northwest hawkweeds is available online at http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfp/publications/00230/Hawkweed%20key_PNW_R3-June06.pdf

KEY TO HAWKWEED (HIERACIUM) SPECIES IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

 1a. Plants with or without stolons, stems erect, not stiff,
       stem leaves absent or much reduced (and only on the lower 
       third of the stem); basal leaves lance-shaped to elliptic
       or egg- shaped and margins mostly entire (or minutely
       toothed); inflorescence solitary to an open flat- or round
       topped cluster. Introduced species.   .................  2 
 1b. Plants without stolons, stems erect, stiff, leafy; basal 
       leaves broadly lance- shaped to egg-shaped and margins 
       entire to strongly toothed; inflorescence an open, round-
       topped cluster. Native and introduced species. ......... 10

 2a. Flowers orange to red- orange; basal leaves with numerous
       simple hairs on upper surface and simple and stellate 
       hairs on lower surface; stem and phyllaries with numerous 
       stellate, glandular and simple hairs; heads 20-50 in an 
       open, rounded cluster, plants 10- 60 cm tall ............
       .....................  H. aurantiacum L. ORANGE HAWKWEED
 2b. Flowers yellow, sometimes with red stripes, leaves and 
       inflorescence various. ................................. 3

 3a. Heads solitary (rarely 2); stems unbranched, without leaves,
       hairy at the base; stolons present, 10 - 25 cm long,leafy
       and mat-forming; basal leaves egg-shaped and narrow at the 
       base, upper surface dark green with numerous long simple 
       hairs; lower surface whitish from a dense mat of short, 
       stellate hairs; phyllaries with numerous stellat glandular
       and simple hairs; plants 15-30 cm tall .................
       ......................  H. pilosella L. MOUSE-HAWKWEED 
 3b. Heads few to many on long stalks (peduncles) in open                  
       clusters; stems branched near the top, with or without 1-3
       small leaves, smooth or hairy at the base; stolons present 
       or absent; basal leaves lance- shaped to elliptic, smooth 
       and glabrous or sparsely to abundantly hairy, but not 
       white on lower surface; phyllaries with or without 
       stellate, glandular and simple hairs. .................. 4

 4a. Heads 2-6, each branch with a solitary head, leaves mostly 
       basal, entire, stolons present ..........................5
 4b. Heads 10-30 (many), leaves not as above, pubescence 
       variable stolons present or absent. .................... 6
 
 5a. Heads 2-6, leaves lance- shaped to spoon- shaped and narrow 
       at the base; upper leaf surface dark green with few to
       numerous long simple hairs; lower surface with 
       moderately dense stellate and long simple hairs; stolons 
       long and leafy; phyllaries with numerous stellate, 
       glandular and simple hairs; involucres 9-13 mm, plants 6-
       20 cm tall ......H. flagellare Willd. WHIPLASH HAWKWEED
 5b.Heads 4-8,leaves slightly spoon- shaped, narrow at the base 
       and tapering at the apex; upper leaf surface hairless or
       with few to numerous short simple hairs; lower surface 
       with sparse stellate and short simple hairs; stolons long
       and leafy; phyllaries with numerous stellate, glandular 
       and simple hairs; involucres 6-8 mm, plants 15-40 cm
       tall ................ H. lactucella Wallr. PALE HAWKWEED

 6a  Leaves bright- to yellow-green; narrowly to broadly lance- 
       shaped to elliptic and tapering to the petiole; both
       surfaces with + numerous simple hairs, lower surface with 
       numerous stellate hairs. ............................... 7
 6b. Leaves dark green, smooth and glabrous or with few simple   
       hairs on the upper surface, on the margins and/or on the 
       lower midrib, with or without stellate hairs on the lower 
       surface. ..............................................  8

 7a. Stolons present (though at times short and inconspicuous);    
       upper leaf surface with long simple hairs, and lacking (or
       few) stellate hairs; lower surface with moderately dense
       stellate and long simple hairs; lower stems with dense
       stellate, simple and glandular hairs, heads 20-50 in a 
       compact, flat-topped cluster, phyllaries sparsely covered
       with numerous stellate, glandular and simple hairs; plants 
       20-70 cm tall ..  H. caespitosum Dumort. MEADOW HAWKWEED 
 7b. Stolons absent; upper and lower surface of leaves with    
       numerous stellate hairs, simple hairs short and stiff,
       giving the plant a rough texture; lower stems with sparse
       to dense stellate and short simple hairs; heads 15-25 in
       an open, round-topped cluster phyllaries densely covered 
       with stellate and glandular hairs; plants 25- 90 cm tall 
       .............. H. glomeratum Froel. YELLOWDEVIL HAWKWEED

 8a. Basal leaves narrowly lance-shaped, upper leaf surface and  
       margin with sparse, long, simple hairs or hairs lacking,
       lower leaf surface and midrib with short, simple hairs, 
       stellate hairs lacking; heads 15-25 in a loose, open 
       cluster; phyllaries with numerous stellate, glandular and
       simple hairs; stolons present and leafy; plants 15-50 cm 
       tall ... H. floribundum Wimm. & Grab. KINGDEVIL HAWKWEED
 8b. Leaves narrowly elliptical; leaves glabrous or with a few   
       simple and stellate hairs; inflorescence an open cluster;
       phyllaries with numerous simple and glandular hairs but 
       without stellate hairs; stolons present or absent ....  9

 9a. Plants without stolons; upper leaf surface glabrous or with   
       only a few simple hairs along margin, stellate hairs 
       lacking, lower leaf surface smooth and glabrous except 
       for few simple or stellate hairs on the midvein; heads
       11-20 in an open, round-topped cluster, plants 40-90 cm 
       tall ............  H. piloselloides Vill. TALL HAWKWEED    
 9b. Plants with long, leafy stolons; upper leaf surface 
       glabrous, lower surface with few to numerous stellate 
       hairs, and with long, simple hairs only along midvein; 
       heads 15-30 in an compact, round- topped cluster, plants 
       25-80  cm tall (= H. bauhini) 
       ...............  H. praealtum Vill. QUEENDEVIL HAWKWEED

10a. Leaf margins entire or wavy toothed; basal leaves elliptic  
       to narrowly lance- shaped, becoming withered and lacking 
       at flowering (deciduous); stem leaves reduced; heads 2-25, 
       small, with sparse to copious hairs ................... 11
10b. Leaf margins coarsely to strongly toothed; basal leaves egg-   
       shaped to broadly lance-shaped, well-developed and 
       persistent at flowering; stem leaves well- developed, 
       heads 4-30, large, with few or no hairs. .............. 20

11a. Flowers white, leaves entire to wavy toothed, sparsely to    
       moderately hairy, stem bases long- hairy, phyllaries with
       dark glandular hairs, stellate hairs absent, plants 30-6
       cm tall; native species, widespread in dry, open woodlands
       ....................  H. albiflorum Hook. WHITE HAWKWEED 
11b. Flowers yellow; leaves and inflorescence variable ....... 12

12a. Leaf margins entire ..................................... 13
12b. Leaf margins finely to coarsely toothed. ...............  18

13a. Basal leaves ovate to spoon-shaped (spatulate), narrowing to 
       base, smooth and  hairless or with a few short hairs,
       stems unbranched, stem leaves absent, heads 2-10; plants 
       3-40 cm tall; native, subalpine species ............... 14
13b. Plants with leafy stems, stem leaves 2-6; leaves slender,  
       narrowly elliptical to lanceshaped; plants slightly to 
       copiously hairy; heads 7 to many; plants usually more than
       30 cm tall ............................................ 15

14a. Upper part of stem, peduncles and involucral bracts sparsely 
       grey-hirsute, glandular hairs present; achenes red
       .....................  H. gracile Hook. SLENDER HAWKWEED 
14b. Upper part of stem, peduncles and phyllaries black-villous,  
       without glandular hairs; achenes black ..................
       ....................... H. triste Willd. WOOLLY HAWKWEED

15a. Lower stem leaves reduced and smaller than those above; the  
       largest leaves in the middle of the stem and the lower as
       well as upper leaves gradually reduced; plants endemic to 
       the Columbia River Gorge ................................
       .............. H. longiberbe Howell LONG BEARD HAWKWEED 
15b. The lowermost stem leaves large, the upper stem leaves  
       gradually reduced (H. scouleri Hook. SCOULER'S HAWKWEED
       complex [continue]) .................................. 16

16a. Plants sparsely or moderately setose below, subglabrous and   
       often glaucous above ..................................... 
       ..................... var. scouleri   SCOULER'S HAWKWEED
16b. Plants evidently long- setose above as well as below, not at 
       all glaucous. ......................................... 17

17a. Involucre evidently glandular and rather sparingly setose ..
       .......... var. cynoglossoides Hook. HOUNDSTONGUE HAWKWEED 
17b. Involucre very densely and conspicuously setose, scarcely or 
       obscurely glandular.......................................
       ................. var. albertinum Hook. WESTERN HAWKWEED

18a. Plants without bulbous- based, conical hairs; stems stout,  
       with long spreading hairs, stem leaves abundant, lower 
       stem leaves strongly toothed, ovate to broadly lanced- 
       shaped, sometimes hairless or with stellate and simple
       hairs;  mid-stem leaves mostly lance- shaped, entire to 
       sparingly toothed, heads 6-20 (many)in an open, spreading
       cluster, phyllaries hairless or nearly so, plants 20-100
       cm tall, native species ..................................
       .................... H. canadense Michx. CANADA HAWKWEED 
18b. Plants with bulbous- based, conical hairs on leaves or leaf     
       margins .................................. ............ 19

19a. Stems slender; leaves linear, 4-12 times as long as wide, 
       entire or only weakly toothed, narrowed to a sessile base;
       leaves somewhat stiff hairy, usually with stellate hairs; 
       leaf margins rolled under (revolute) and rough from short,
       firm, conical hairs; stems uniformly leafy,leaves sessile; 
       heads few to many (5-16) in an umbellate panicle, plants 
       30- 80 cm tall, native species (= H. scabriusculum) ....
       .................  H. umbellatum L.  NARROWLEAF HAWKWEED 
19b. Stems robust; leaves oblong and narrowly tapered to a long
       petiole, leaf margins flat (not revolute) and smooth; 
       lower leaf surfaces and lower stem with long, firm,
       subconic hairs; stellate hairs lacking throughout; stem 
       robust; stem leaves 20 - 50; becoming smaller upwards;
       lower stem densely covered with long simple hairs;
       phyllaries with few glandular and long simple hairs, or
       glabrous; heads few to numerous (3-12) in an open, flat
       topped cluster; plants 40-130 cm tall, introduced species
       .....................  H. sabaudum L. EUROPEAN HAWKWEED

20a. Leaves purple-mottled or blotched above, plants 20-80 cm
       tall, introduced species
       ..................... H. maculatum Sm. SPOTTED HAWKWEED 
20b. Leaves uniformly green ................................. 21

21a. Leaf bases rounded or truncate ......................... 22
21b. Leaf bases tapered and narrowing. ...................... 23

22a. Leaves strongly dentate (a few coarse teeth along the
       margin, with the teeth facing outward), with minute 
       glands on the margin; basal leaves narrowly egg- shaped
       abruptly tapering to petiole, with numerous simple hairs 
       on upper surface and stellate hairs on lower surface; 
       stem leaves 2- 4; heads 2-10, with many dark, glandular 
       and simple hairs and a few stellate hairs; phyllaries
       12-16 mm long; branches of the inflorescence  upright; 
       plants 20-40 cm tall; introduced species ...............
       ..................... H. atratum Fries. POLAR HAWKWEED
22b. Leaves nearly entire or slightly toothed, without minute   
       glands on the laef mmargin; basal leaves broadly
       elliptical, heart-shaped (cordate) or somewhat flattened 
       (truncate) at base, not tapered to petiole, hairless or
       with simple hairs on the upper surface or sparse stellate 
       hairs on the lower surface; stem leaves absent or 1- 2
       near the base; heads 4-15, with dense stellate and dark 
       glandular hairs; phyllaries 9-10 mm long; branches of
       the inflorescens spreaing; plants 20-80 cm tall, 
       introduced species ........ H. murorum L. WALL HAWKWEED

23a. Heads 4-12, with numerous stellate and simple hairs ( 
       sometimes with few dark, glandular hairs); stems with
       sparse stellate hairs and numerous glandular hairs; basal
       leaves grey-green, broadly elliptical to lance-shaped,
       strongly toothed, narrowly tapering to a petiole; stem 
       leaves 4-7, upper leaves smaller and sessile, plants
       20-80 cm tall; phyllaries only slightly imbricate; 
       introduced species ......................................
       .................  H. lachenalii Gmel. COMMON HAWKWEED
23b. Heads 10-25, without stellate and simple hairs; stems with 
       numerous stellate and glandular hairs; basal leaves green, 
       broadly elliptical, coarsely to strongly toothed, abruptly 
       tapering to a petiole; stem leaves 7- 10, upper leaves 
       smaller and sessile, plants 40-110 cm tall; phyllaries
       strongly imbricate; introduced species ...................
       .................  H. laevigatum Willd. SMOOTH HAWKWEED

TABLE 1

LIST OF NATIVE HAWKWEEDS IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICA

(including Alaska, Alberta, California, Colorado, British Columbia, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming) Scientific name Common name Distribution

SUBGENUS CHIONORACIUM

Hieracium albiflorum Hook. - white hawkweed AB, BC; AK, CA, CO, ID, MT, OR, UT, WA, WY
Hieracium argutum Nutt. - southern hawkweed CA
Hieracium bolanderi Gray. - Bolander's hawkweed OR (serpentine soils of SW), CA
Hieracium gracile Hook. - slender hawkweed BC; CA, CO, ID, MT, OR,WA, WY
Hieracium greenei Porter & Britt. - Green's hawkweed OR, CA
Hieracium horridum Fries. - rough hawkweed OR, CA
Hieracium longiberbe T.J. Howell - long beard hawkweed OR, WA (occurs only in Columbia River Gorge)
Hieracium parryi Zahn - Parry hawkweed OR (serpentine soils of SW), CA
Hieracium scouleri var. albertinum (Farr) G.W. Douglas & G.A. Allen - western hawkweed AB, BC; AK, CA, CO, ID, MT, OR, WA, WY
Hieracium scouleri var. cynoglossoides Arv.-Tour. - houndstongue hawkweed AB, BC; CA, ID, OR, WA
Hieracium scouleri Hook. var. scouleri - Scouler's hawkweed AB, BC; CA, ID, MT, OR, WA, WY
Hieracium triste Willd. ex Spreng. - alpine hawkweed AB, BC, AK

SUBGENUS HIERACIUM

Hieracium canadense Michx. - Canada hawkweed BC; ID, MT, WA
Hieracium umbellatum L. - narrowleaf hawkweed BC; ID, MT, OR, WA, WY

TABLE 2

LIST OF INVASIVE ALIEN HAWKWEEDS IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICA (including Alaska, Alberta, British Columbia, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming) Scientific name Common name Distribution

SUBGENUS PILOSELLA

Hieracium aurantiacum L. - orange hawkweed AB, BC; AK, ID, MT, OR, WA, WY
Hieracium caespitosum Dumort.(= H. pratense Tausch) - meadow hawkweed AB, BC; ID, MT, OR, WA, WY
Hieracium flagellare Willd. - whiplash hawkweed BC; WY
Hieracium floribundum Wimmer. & Grab. - kingdevil hawkweed BC; ID, MT, OR, WA
Hieracium glomeratum Froel. - yellowdevil hawkweed BC; ID, WA
Hieracium lactucella Wallr. - pale hawkweed BC
Hieracium pilosella L. - mouse ear hawkweed BC; OR, WA
Hieracium piloselloides Vill. - tall hawkweed BC; MT
Hieracium praealtum Vill. ( = H. bauhini Schult.) - queendevil hawkweed BC

SUBGENUS HIERACIUM

Hieracium atratum Fries. - polar hawkweed BC; WA
Hieracium laevigatum Willd. - smooth hawkweed BC; WA
Hieracium lachenalii K.C. Gmel. (= H. vulgatum auct.) - common hawkweed BC; ID, WA
Hieracium maculatum Sm. - spotted hawkweed BC; WA
Hieracium murorum L. - wall hawkweed BC; AK
Hieracium sabaudum L. - European hawkweed BC; WA

Liteature Cited

Strother, J. L. 2006.
Hieracium. Flora of North America 20: 278-288. Available online at: http://www.fna.org/FNA/
Wilson, L.M., J.P. McCaffrey, P.C. Quimby, Jr., and J. L. Birdsall. 1997.
Hawkweeds in the Pacific Northwest. Rangelands 19(4): 18-23.
Wilson, L.M., J. Fehrer, S. Brautigam and G. Grosskopf. 2006.
A new invasive hawkweed, Hieracium glomeratum (Lactuceae, Asteraceae), in the Pacific Northwest. Can. J. Bot. 84: 133-142.


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