BEN
BOTANICAL ELECTRONIC NEWS
ISSN 1188-603X


No. 484 November 25, 2014 aceska@telus.net Victoria, B.C.
Dr. A. Ceska, P.O. Box 8546, Victoria, B.C. Canada V8W 3S2


CREPIS ACUMINATA NUTT. (ASTERACEAE), AN ADDITION TO THE CANADIAN FLORA

From: Dr. Christopher J. Sears email: fundywest@mac.com

Crepis acuminata is among the most morphologically distinct species in the North American Crepis agamic complex; however, morphological confusion arises in parts of British Columbia, Washington State, Idaho, Oregon and California because Crepis acuminata and C. atribarba morphologically intergrade with each other. Allopolyploidy is the likely cause of this morphological disarray (Babcock & Stebbins 1938; Sears 2011). The types of C. intermedia (Bolander 4930) and C. angustata (Carl F. Baker 92) occupy this morphological spectrum between C. acuminata and C. atribraba, which is why I have placed them in synonymy with C. acuminata below. Part of this morphological continuum extends into the Flathead Basin in southeastern British Columbia. Some individuals collected in this area (e.g. Lomer 94-113) lean towards the C. acuminata end of the morphologically spectrum, while others (e.g. Polster 125) are well within it. Indeed, if Polster 125 is considered in isolation it is easily assigned to C. acuminata based on morphology alone. I propose that Crepis acuminata be added to the Canadian flora. A key to the native Crepis known to Canada and adjacent regions of the United States can be found below. Maximum and minimum character values are indicated in the key as well as means and one standard deviations.

Crepis acuminata Nutt. subsp. acuminata = Crepis acuminata subsp. typica Babc. and Stebbins, Carn. Inst. Washing. Publs. 504:170. 1938. TYPE U.S.A. Plains of the Upper Platte, Nuttall s.n. (SYNTYPES: BM-1010043!, HUH-6258!, HUH-6257!, PH-1025896!)

= Crepis angustata Rydb., Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 32:135. 1905. TYPE: U.S.A. Colorado: North Park, 8000 ft., July 28, 1896, Carl F. Baker 92 (HOLOTYPE: NY-167780!; ISOTYPE: NY-167781!, NDG- 48956!)

= Crepis acuminata subsp. pluriflora Babc. & Stebbins, Carn. Inst. Wash. Publ. 504:178-179. 1938. = Psilochenia acuminata subsp. pluriflora (Babc. and Stebbins) W. A. Weber, Phytologica 53(3):188. 1983. TYPE: U.S.A. Colorado: Delta Co., Cedar Edge, alt. 7000 ft., June 24, 1901, Baker 243 (HOLOTYPE: UC-91870; ISOTYPE: RM-33306! and 160594!)

= Crepis intermedia A. Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Amer. 1(2):432. 1884, Hieraciodes intermedium (A. Gray) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1:346. 1891, C. acuminata var. intermedia (A. Gray) Jepson Man. Fl. Pl. Calif. 1011. 1925, Psilochenia intermedia (A. Gray) W. A. Weber, Phytologica 53(3):189. 1983. TYPE: U.S.A. California: Yosemite Valley, sandy soil, 1866, Bolander 4930 (EPITYPE: GH-!)

Etymology. From the Latin word "acuminatus", meaning "narrowing gradually to a point". This is likely in reference to the terminal midlobe of the basal leaves, which are acuminate.

Key to the native Crepis s.s of Canada and adjacent regions of the United States of America

1a.  Involucral bracts with glandular hairs ............................. 2
1b.  Involucral bracts devoid of glandular hairs ........................ 4
2a.  Glandular hairs present on the involucral bracts but not also on the
     stems, and upper cauline and basal leaves  .... C. occidentalis Nutt. (in part)
2b.  Glandular hairs present on the involucral bracts, stems, upper cauline
     and basal leaves ................................................... 3
3a.  Involucral bracts of the outer series differ from each other by >= 2mm
     in length; 12-45 (23  7) flowers per head; midrib of basal leaves 
     always purple to red in living and herbarium material, and upper 
     peduncles weakly to strongly expanded below the heads ................
     ............ C. bakeri Greene (not currently known from Canada)
3b.  Involucral bracts of the outer series differ from each other by < 2 mm
     in length; 7-19 (14  3) flowers per head; if midrib of basal leaves 
     are purple to red in living and herbarium material then the peduncles 
     are not expanded below the heads ... C. occidentalis Nutt. (in part)
4a.  Involucral bracts with at least some non-glandular hairs ........... 5
4b.  Involucral bracts glabrous ......................................... 8
5a.  Inner involucral bracts with only pure white villous hairs, or yellow-
     green crisped bristles ............................................. 6
5b.  Inner involucral bracts with dark green to black, straight or villous
     hairs .............................................................. 7
6a.  Inner involucral bracts with pure white and villous hairs ............
     ..................................... C. modocensis Greene (in part) 
     (This form includes the diploids and the closely associate autotetra-
     ploids. It is known from Canada)
6b.  Inner involucral bracts with yellow to yellow/green crisped bristles 
     ............. C. barbigera Leiberg (not currently known from Canada)
7a.  Base of petioles or stem or both with stout yellow bristles; 18-47 (30
      7) flowers per head; basal leaves with lanceolate, toothed to pinna-
     tifid lobes, rarely falcate ......... C. modocensis Greene (in part)
7b.  Base of the petioles and stem without bristles; 5-23 (13  4) flowers
     per head; basal leaves with deep lobes, lobes narrow and entire to 
     wide and toothed, often falcate and pointing towards the tips of the 
     leaves (antrorse) ................. C. atribarba A. Heller (in part)
8a.  Leaves mostly in a basal rosette, cauline leaves much reduced or 
     absent; leaves runcinate and olive green; occurring on ultramafic 
     soils ....  C. pleurocarpa A. Gray (not currently known from Canada)
8b.  Plants with well-developed cauline leaves; leaf shape various and 
     green to grey/green; occurring on various soil types, sometimes also
     including ultramafic soils ......................................... 9
9a.  Leaves with minute papillae on their margins and largest heads with 
     4-10 (6  1) flowers; margins of inner involucral bracts scarious
     ................................................. C. acuminata Nutt. 
9b.  Leaves rarely with minute papillae on the margins of the leaves and
     largest heads with 8-47 (16  4) flowers; margins of inner involucral
     bracts tomentose .................................................. 10
10a. Basal leaves with deep, narrow and entire to wide and toothed, lobes,
     often falcate and antrorse (but some populations in Washington and 
     British Columbia lacking lobes); leaves green and glabrate .........
     .................................. C. atribarba A. Heller (in part)
10b. Basal leaves with lobes deeply cleft to shallowly lobed, lobes never
     falcate or antrorse; leaves grayish-tomentose to densely canescent
     ................................... C. occidentalis Nutt. (in part)

Specimens mentioned in the text

Canada. BRITISH COLUMBIA: Lomer 94-113, 7-Jul-1994, Open mountainside, Kishinena Creek, Flathead Basin, UBC (49.0621 -114.281, 4400 ft.); Polster 125, 12-Aug-1976, South facing ridge, Festubert Mountain, V (49.071861 -114.153, 5780 ft.); USA. Nuttall s.n., Plains of the Upper Platte [River], BM, HUH, PH; CALIFORNIA: Bolander 4930, 1866, Sandy soil, Yosemite Valley GH; COLORADO, Jackson County: Baker 92, 28 July 1896, North Park (SE), NDH (40.853 -106.299, 7916 ft.); Delta County: Baker 243 (in part), Cedar Edge (Cedaredge), UC, RM (38.9016, -107.926, 6225 ft.)

Literature Cited

Babcock, E.B., & G.L. Stebbins. 1938.
The American Species of Crepis their interrelationships and distribution as affected by polyploidy and apomixes. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication No. 504.
Sears, C.J. 2011.
Systematic investigations into the North American Crepis agamic complex. PhD Dissertation. University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC. https://circle.ubc.ca/bitstream/handle/2429/33916/ubc_2011_spring_sears_christopher.pdf?sequence=1


COMPUTER TOOLS FOR IDENTIFICATION OF THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MACROFUNGI

From: Ian Gibson ig@islandnet.com and Danny Miller dannymi@alpental.com

1) New version 2.2 of MatchMaker - Mushrooms of the Pacific Northwest

MatchMaker (http://www.matchmakermushrooms.com/) is the free Pacific Northwest Mushroom Identification application for the PC or MAC, developed by Ian Gibson, Danny Miller and a host of other contributing authors and photographers. Over 4,000 species are fully described, many of them with photos, including a synoptic key. This is not like reading a paper key that asks you questions you might not know the answer to, but it involves telling the computer what you do know about the mushroom. It includes dozens of other features and learning opportunities, as well as a quiz.

2) Pictorial Key and Tables MatchMaker now includes a Pictorial Key to 1,500 of the most common PNW Mushrooms. This Pictorial Key is also available as a self-standing application outside of MatchMaker (http://www.alpental.com/psms/) for use on a smart phone, where no internet or cell reception is necessary. Pictures of similar mushrooms are shown side by side (not in alphabetical order) where you will see a concise summary of their differences, with the most important points highlighted in bold, so that you can quickly see the features that make a species unique.


TWO MYCOLOGICAL NOVELTIES: AMANITA PRUITTII N.SP. AND AMANITACEAE JOURNAL

Amanitaceae journal (ISSN [online] 2331-7612, R. E. Tulloss, publisher) is an open access e-journal with the sole purpose of formally publishing results of research of those actively working in Herbarium Rooseveltensis Amanitarum. This journal is a means of meeting part of the requirement for on-line treatments in the continuously updated monograph of the Amanitaceae family. This was discussed informally during the initial meeting concerning a proposed North American Mycoflora project (New Haven, Connecticut, June 2012). At that meeting, several speakers recognized the need for periodic publication as a stable state version of a continuously updated on-line monograph.

Amanitaceae journal will satisfy that proposal through the creation of (1) the e-journal that will meet the requirements of valid and effective Publication of the ICN and (2) a mechanism for creating snapshots of the site on a regular basis and storing those snapshots for open access. Clearly, both approaches require archival storage. For the e-journal, ISO certified digital repositories (as described in the ICN) already exist.

Articles for this journal are peer reviewed. Authors of manuscripts will advise the publisher with regard to reviewers with suitable knowledge of the subject matter of a given manuscript.

The inaugural issue of Amanitaceae contains the description of a new species of Amanita from California and Oregon, i.e., Amanita pruittii A. H. Sm. ex Tulloss, J. Lindgr. & Arora:

Tulloss, R.E. et al. 2014.
Amanita pruittii a new, apparently saprotrophic species from US Pacific coastal states. Amanitaceae Vol. 1 (No. 1): 1-9. http://www.amanitaceaethejournal.org/content/uploaded/journal/2014/Amanitaceae.2014.1.1.pdf

Amanita pruittii is a new Amanita species, recently known from sites in California and Oregon. Morphologically the species is a member of Amanita subsect. Vittadiniae and is assignable to stirpus Vittadinii of Bas. Amanita pruittii belongs to a small group of saprophytic members of otherwise mostly mycorrhizal genus Amanita and occurs commonly without an obvious, woody, ectomycorrhizal symbiont. It grows in grassland habitats with standing water part of the year, and is often found submerged or partially submerged in water: http://mushroomobserver.org/185950 or http://mushroomobserver.org/185959 available on Mushroom Observer web site: http://mushroomobserver.org/name/show_name/15254

Amanita pruittii is also included in the Trial key to the species of AMANITA in the Pacific Northwest prepared for the Pacific Northwest Key Council by J. Lindgren in 2014: http://www.svims.ca/council/Amanit.htm

The search is on to find additional locations for A. pruittii, previously also known as Arora's Anonymous Amanita. The known sites are separated by about 600 miles and we are interested in finding other locations between these sites and to extend the range along the Pacific Coast. In October/November, these amanitas are fruiting in good numbers at Fern Ridge Reservoir in Oregon and one should look for them in wet meadows and lowlands along rivers. Please sent your reports of new locations to Jan Lindgren (jlindg@centurylink.net), ideally supported by dried herbarium specimens and photographs.

[Editorial Comment: for R.E. Tulloss' profile see http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-mushroom-man/]


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