BEN
BOTANICAL ELECTRONIC NEWS
ISSN 1188-603X


No. 520 July 25, 2017 aceska@telus.net Victoria, B.C.
Dr. A. Ceska, 1809 Penshurst, Victoria, BC, Canada V8N 2N6


8TH ANNUAL SCHOFIELD BRYOPHYTE FORAY

Date: SEPTEMBER 7-10, 2017

This year we will be exploring Manning Provincial Park. The Park has large varieties of walking and hiking trails in the center of the Cascade Mountains. If weather permits we should be able to get up into the alpine zone. We will be staying in Hope and arrive on September 7th. September 8th and 9th will be spent exploring the Park. Evenings will be spent working on our collections using keys and microscopes at the motel. September 10th will either be a travel day or a short trip up to the Park. Hope is about 60 km from the Park and should be an easy drive.

Registration Fee: $10.00

To register or for details Contact Olivia Lee, Botany UBC- 604-822-3344 Olivia.lee@botany.ubc


FOREST FIRES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA

From: The Canadian Press - July 24, 2017

Tens of thousands of anxious British Columbia residents who were forced to escape raging wildfires have returned home in recent days as firefighters made progress and conditions improved. About 20,000 people remained displaced on Monday, but that number was down significantly from 45,000 last week, said Chris Duffy, executive director of operations at Emergency Management BC. People have returned to 100 Mile House and its surrounding areas, as well as Princeton, Cache Creek and Lac La Hache, all communities where evacuation orders have been downgraded to alerts, he said. "Those are thousands and thousands of people starting to mobilize and return home, so those numbers can change quite dramatically," Duffy said. Residents of an area northwest of 100 Mile House were cleared to go home Monday, as were people from the communities of Little Fort and Clearwater, north of Kamloops. An evacuation order is still in effect for 10,000 residents of Williams Lake. The Cariboo Regional District is pressing ahead with plans for re-entry, although city official Geoff Payton said unpredictable conditions make it impossible to set a firm date for a return.

The full text of this article can be found here: http://www.timescolonist.com/tens-of-thousands-of-b-c-residents-go-home-after-being-forced-out-by-wildfires-1.21329487

More fire related items can be found here:


NOTEWORTHY COLLECTIONS - WASHINGTON

From: Legler, Ben & David Giblin WTU - Madroño 64(1):6-8 [abbrev.] January 2017

BLITUM HASTATUM Rydb. (AMARANTHACEAE). Okanogan County, Okanogan National Forest, Daisy Campground on north side of Forest Road 39 (Toats Coulee Road), elev. 1487 m, 48.867638 N, 119.8610878 W, 3 July 2015, B. Legler 13697 (ID, MO, UBC, WTU). Previous knowledge. Blitum hastatum (Chenopodium capitatum [L.] Ambrosi var. parvicapitatum S.L. Welsh) is native to the western United States, occurring from northeast Oregon east to southwest Montana and south to California and New Mexico (Clemants and Mosyakin 2003). Disjunct populations have been reported from southern British Columbia just north of the United States border (CPNWH 2015), although unknown if these are native or introduced. Blitum hastatum differs from the similar Blitium capitatum L. in its smaller (mostly, 5 mm diameter) fruiting glomerules, greenish sepals that do not become fleshy, and cuneate to truncate leaf bases. Significance. First collection of this species for Washington. Plants at the cited locality were found growing in a campground under mature, open conifer woods in soil disturbed by campers and trampled by cattle, suggesting Blitium hastatum was introduced here.

CORRIGIOLA LITTORALIS L. subsp. LITTORALIS (CARYOPHYLLACEAE). Cowlitz County, Merrill Lake, area from boat ramp north for approximately 0.5 km, elev. 445 m, 46.093848 N, 122.320148 W, 27 August 2013, Giblin 5085 (WTU). Previous knowledge. Strapwort, an herbaceous annual, is an uncommon Eurasian introduction documented in North America from Maryland, Oregon (near Portland), and southwest British Columbia (Thieret and Rabeler 2005, CPNWH 2015). Significance. Not previously documented in Washington. The population at this location was extensive, with thousands of small plants forming scattered mats along the mucky shoreline in the drawdown zone of the reservoir. It is to be expected in similar habitats in reservoirs downstream from this site.

CYPERUS FUSCUS L. (CYPERACEAE). Clark County, east shore of Columbia River ca 0.8 km south of Frenchmans Bar Regional Park, elev. 3 m, 45.6732038 N, 122.7647338 W, 11 September 2015, B. Legler 13841 (MICH, WTU). Previous knowledge. Brown galingale is native to Eurasia, with introduced populations occurring in scattered areas of North America, including Ontario, Quebec, the New England states, South Dakota, Nebraska, Missouri, Nevada, and California (Tucker et al. 2002). Significance. First collection for Washington. Plants at this location were locally common on a silty, tidally inundated river shoreline, growing with four other Cyperus L. species. Peter F. Zika, Cyperaceae expert, confirmed the specimen identification.

GALEOPSIS BIFIDA Boenn. (LAMIACEAE). King County, no locality given, August 1949, Mrs. Newsome s.n. (WTU). Kittitas County, along John Wayne Trail about 1/2 mile northwest of trailhead south of Thorp, elev. 527 m, T18N R17E S11, 48.074368 N, 120.63608 W, 28 July 2011, Knoke 2203 (WTU). Previous knowledge. Split-lip hemp-nettle is native to a large swath of temperate Eurasia (Afonin et al. 2008), and is introduced to northeastern North America, the midwestern United States, and parts of Canada including British Columbia (Kartesz 2015). Galeopsis bifida is sometimes treated as a variety of the similar Galeopsis tetrahit L.; however, molecular results indicate each is an allopolyploid with different maternal parentage and should be recognized as distinct species (Bendiksby et al. 2011). Galeopsis bifida can be distinguished by the emarginate, often revolute-margined, lower corolla lobe with more extensive dark coloration. Significance. Not previously documented for Washington. The cited collections were previously misidentified as Galeopsis tetrahit.

HIRSCHFELDIA INCANA (L.) Lagr.-Fossat (BRASSICACEAE). Clark County, Cowlitz County, Jefferson County, King County, Pierce County, Snohomish County, & Whatcom County. Previous knowledge. Mediterranean mustard is native to the Mediterranean region of Eurasia and northern Africa, with North American introduced populations known in California, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Arizona, and Mexico (Warwick 2010; CPNWH 2015). It is an invasive weed in California (California Invasive Plant Council, http://www.cal-ipc.org/). In Oregon it is known from only a few recent and older collections, with the oldest specimen collected on the ballast grounds at Linnton, Oregon, in 1919 (CPNWH 2015). Significance. First collections for Washington. Its 18 collections span the length of western Washington from Whatcom County near the Canadian border south through the Puget Sound lowlands to Clark County just north of Oregon. Additional plants, not collected, were observed at multiple locations on the margins of Interstate 5, Interstate 90, and Highway 2 through much of the central and southern Puget Sound region. The large number of locations and widespread distribution is somewhat surprising, as it is unlikely that such a large plant would have gone undetected for very long. We suspect that Hirschfeldia incana may be a recent and rapidly spreading arrival in Washington. However, plants may have been overlooked as Brassica nigra (L.) W.D.J. Koch, a widespread and similar species with silique valves prominently 1veined and beak seedless (vs. valves obscurely veined and beak 1-seeded in Hirschfeldia incana). At most of the cited localities the species grows in dry, gravelly or loamy soil of roadsides, embankments, recent construction sites, vacant lots, and recently seeded lawns. Flowers were observed from early May through mid November, and mature, indehisced fruits from June through the middle of November. Plants were observed to produce large numbers of seed-bearing fruits, with seeds likely spread by vehicles and construction equipment.

LACTUCA VIROSA L. (ASTERACEAE). King County and Lewis County. Previous knowledge. Bitter lettuce is native to Europe, with introduced populations known from Alabama, California, and Washington D.C. (Strother 2006). No previous records are known from the Pacific Northwest; an old specimen misidentified as Lactuca virosa from Park County, Montana (Hitchcock 13573, WTU) is Lactuca serriola L. Fruits of L. virosa transition from lemon-yellow through orange to brick red when young, becoming deep purplish-black at maturity. In contrast, fruits of the similar and widespread Lactuca serriola are whitish or tan when young and light to medium brown at maturity. The two species also differ in fruit shape, margins, and apical serrations. Significance. First collections for Washington. The species appears to be well established on roadsides near Riffe Lake, Lewis Co., and should be sought elsewhere in western Washington.

LUPINUS PACHYLOBUS Greene. (FABACEAE). San Juan County, Sentinel Island, west end of island, elev. below 50 m, 48.64008 N, 123.15238 W, 27 April 2006, Habegger EH-1060 (WTU). Previous knowledge. Big pod lupine is otherwise native and endemic to California (Baldwin et al. 2012). Significance. First collection for Washington and first collection outside of California. The specimen label stated plants were found in ''several small patches on dry south slope'' of the island. Although several other presumably native species are disjunct between the San Juan Islands and California (e.g., Crassula connata [Ruiz & Pav.] A. Berger and Lepidium oxycarpum Torr. & A. Gray), we suspect Lupinus pachylobus is introduced. A possible point of introduction is nearby Speiden Island, on which exotic game animals are raised and the slopes are heavily grazed. Lupinus pachylobus differs from the widespread Lupinus bicolor Lindl. in its wider pods (79 mm wide vs. 36 mm wide) and glabrous keel petals; the cited specimen has both fiowers and mature dehiscing pods, and was previously misidentified as Lupinus bicolor.

OXYBASIS GLAUCA (L.) S. Fuentes, Uotila & Borsch subsp. GLAUCA (AMARANTHACEAE). Franklin County, Wahluke Wildlife Parcel on east side of Mountain Vista Road, approximately 1 km south of Michel Road, elev. 282 m, 46.663758 N, 119.300768 W, 17 September 2015, Giblin 5742 (WTU). Previous knowledge. Oxybasis glauca subsp. glauca (Syn.: Chenopodium glaucum L. var. glaucum) is a European introduction, widespread in central and eastern North America, occurring west of the Rocky Mountains in Nevada (Clemants and Mosyakin 2003) and southwest British Columbia (CPNWH 2015). Baldwin et al. 2012 lists it as "expected" in California. Subspecies glauca is distinguished from North America native Oxybasis glauca subsp. salina (Standl.) Mosyakin by its smaller seeds (0.60.9 mm vs. 0.91.1 mm) and its infiorescence lacking leafy bracts distally. Significance. Not previously documented from Washington.

VICIA LUTEA L. (FABACEAE). Jefferson County, Port Townsend, west side of Larry Scott Memorial Trail about 100 m south of milepost 1.0, elev. 2 m, 48.0972478 N, 122.7938468 W (coordinates obtained from the collector in 2015), 13 May 2007, Weinmann 345 (WTU); same general site, 48.0983778 N, 122.7916418 W, 13 May 2016, B. Legler 14063 (UBC, WTU). Previous knowledge. Yellow vetch is native to Europe, and introduced to North America at scattered localities in California, western Oregon, and the southeastern United States (Kartesz 2015). Significance. First collections for Washington. Plants at the cited locality are locally common and well established as a weed on a long stretch of dry trailside bank. The first cited specimen was previously misidentified as Vicia pannonica Crantz, a similar yellow-fiowered species with pubescent banner petals and pod hairs not pustulate-based.

References

AFONIN, A.N., S. L. GREENE, N. I. DZYUBENKO, & A. N. FROLOV (eds.). 2008.
Interactive Agricultural Ecological Atlas of Russia and Neighboring Countries. Economic Plants and their Diseases, Pests, and Weeds. Website http://www.agroatlas.ru (accessed December 2015).
BALDWIN, B.G., D.H. GOLDMAN, D.J. KEIL, R. PATTERSON, T.J. ROSATTI, & D.H. WILKEN, (eds.). 2012.
The Jepson manual: vascular plants of California, Second edition. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.
BENDIKSBY, M., A. TRIBSCH, L. BORGEN, P. TRAVNICEK, & A.K. BRYSTING. 2011.
Allopolyploid origins of the Galeopsis tetraploids - revisiting Muntzing's classical textbook example using molecular tools. New Phytologist 191: 11501167.
CLEMANTS, S.E. & S.L. MOSYAKIN. 2003.
Chenopodium. Pp. 275299 in Flora of North America Editorial Committee (eds.), Flora of North America North of Mexico, Vol. 4: Magnoliophyta: Caryophyllidae, part 1. Oxford University Press, New York, NY.
CPNWH: Consortium of Pacific Northwest Herbaria Specimen Database. 2015.
Website: http://www.pnwherbaria.org (accessed December 2015).
KARTESZ, J.T., The Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2015.
North American Plant Atlas. (http://bonap.net/napa ). Chapel Hill, N.C. (accessed December 2015).
STROTHER, J.L. 2006.
Lactuca. Pp. 259263 in Flora of North America Editorial Committee (eds.), Flora of North America North of Mexico, Vol. 19: Magnoliophyta: Asteridae (in part): Asteraceae, part 1. Oxford University Press, New York, NY.
THIERET, J.W.& R.K. RABELER. 2005.
Corrigiola. Pp. 4849 in Flora of North America Editorial Committee (eds.), Flora of North America North of Mexico, Vol. 5: Magnoliophyta: Caryophyllidae, part 2. Oxford University Press, New York, NY.
TUCKER, G.C., B.C. MARCKS, & R.J. CARTER. 2002.
Cyperus. Pp. 141191 in Flora of North America Editorial Committee (eds.), Flora of North America North of Mexico, Vol. 23: Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part): Cyperaceae. Oxford University Press, New York, NY.
WARWICK, S.I. 2010.
Hirschfeldia. Pp. 436437 in Flora of North America Editorial Committee (eds.), Flora of North America North of Mexico, Vol. 7: Magnoliophyta: Salicaceae to Brassicaceae. Oxford University Press, New York, NY.


NOTEWORTHY COLLECTIONS - OREGON

From: Legler, Ben & David Giblin WTU - abbrev. From Madroño 64(1):5-6 January 2017

CHAEROPHYLLUM TEMULUM L. (APIACEAE). Washington County, Tualatin, dry soil, pasture along fence line (no geocoordinates provided), 29 June 2000, White s.n. (WTU, OSC). Previous knowledge. Rough chervil is a large, biennial, taprooted European introduction of disturbed forest understory and margin, documented in eastern North America from Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Quebec (Kartesz 2015). In western North America it is known from southwestern British Columbia and lowland western Washington (CPNWH 2015). Significance. First collection for Oregon. Originally misidentified by the collector as Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm. The documented range of Chaerophyllum temulum in the Puget Sound region of Washington has increased by more than 100 km in the last five years, suggesting that this species is more widespread than specimen records indicate. Chaerophyllum temulum is likely more widespread in the Willamette Valley of Oregon given that region's climatic and habitat affinities with the Puget Sound region.

CYPERUS FUSCUS L. (CYPERACEAE). Columbia County, Columbia River, Trojan Park, just south of Coffin Rock, 4.5 air miles southeast of Rainier, elev. 3 m [inferred], 46.0338498 N, 122.8833118 W, 16 November 2013, Otting 3723 (WTU). Previous knowledge. Brown galingale is native to Eurasia, with introduced populations occurring in scattered areas of North America, including Ontario, Quebec, the New England states, South Dakota, Nebraska, Missouri, Nevada, and California (Tucker et al. 2002). Significance. First collection for Oregon. The specimen was originally misidentified as Cyperus difformis L. Peter F. Zika, Cyperaceae expert, confirmed the specimen identification.

GALIUM PALUSTRE L. (RUBIACEAE). Douglas County, Highway 99 between Interstate Highway 5 (I-5) and Drain, between the highway and a smaller road paralleling it to the north, elev. 110 m, 43.7028278 N, 123.251168 W, 15 June 2013, Wilson 17571 (WTU). Previous knowledge. Common marsh bedstraw is native to eastern North America and Europe, and apparently introduced to southern British Columbia, Washington, and Montana (CPNWH 2015). It has been previously reported from Multnomah County, Oregon (University of Montana Invaders Database, http://invader.dbs.umt.edu/), although without a substantiating voucher or means of verification. Significance. First verified collection for Oregon. The label indicated plants were "scrambling over other plants including Carex scoparia at edge of wetland." The specimen was previously misidentified as Galium trifidum L.; Galium palustre differs in its larger, 4-merous fiowers with petals longer than wide.

References

Consortium of Pacific Northwest Herbaria 2015
Specimen Database (CPNWH). Website http://www.pnwherbaria.org (accessed December 2015).
KARTESZ, J.T., The Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2015.
North American Plant Atlas. (http://bonap.net/napa ). Chapel Hill, N.C. (accessed December 2015).
TUCKER, G.C., B.C. MARCKS, & R.J. CARTER. 2002.
Cyperus. Pp. 141191 in Flora of North America Editorial Committee (eds.), Flora of North America North of Mexico, Vol. 23: Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part): Cyperaceae. Oxford University Press, New York, NY

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