Technology in Culture: O-Z

O

Obsidian
Obstetrics
Occupational Diseases ( see also: Health, Occupational )
Ocean Liners
Oceanography
Ocher and Ocher Industry
Office Technology
Oil Gas
Oil Industry {See Petroleum Industry
Oil Pollution
Oil-Shale Industry
Oilseed Products
Old Order Mennonites
Olive Oil Industry
Olives and Olive Industry
Operating Systems
Operations Research
Ophthalmology
Opium and opium trade
Optical Character Recognition
Optical Industry
Optical Storage Devices
Optics
Optoelectronics
Oral Contraceptives
Oral History
Ordnance
Ordnance, Naval
Ore Processing
Organ Transplants
Ornaments, Christmas
Ornithology
Ottoman Empire
Outhouses
Ovens
Ovens, Microwave
Oxen
Oximeters
Oxygen and Oxygen Industry
Ozone
Ozone Layer

P

P-47 Thunderbolt (Fighter)
P-51 Mustang (Fighter)
Pacemakers
Pacemakers, Cardiac
Packaging and Packaging Industry
Pails
Paint and Paint Industry
Painters and Painting
Painters and Painting, Industrial
Palaces
Palm Oil Industry
Palynology
Panama-Pacific International Exposition (San Francisco, 1915)
Paper and Paper Industry
Parachutes
Paragliders
Paris International Exposition (1867)
Paris International Exposition (1889)
Paris International Exposition (1900)
Parks
Parsees
Patent Models
Patents
Pattern Books
Pavements
Paving
Pearls
Peloponnesian War
Pencils
Pendulums
Penicillin
Pens
Pens, Ballpoint
Performance (Engineering)
Perfumes and Perfume Industry
Periodicals
Periodicals, Engineering
Periodicals, Scientific
Periodicals, Technical
Persian Gulf War
Pest Control
Pesticides
Petrochemical Industry
Petroleum Drilling
Petroleum Engineering ( see Engineering, Petroleum )
Petroleum Industry
Pharmaceutical Industry
Pharmacology
Philippines
Philips' Gloeilampenfabrieken (Firm)
Philosophy of Science
Philosophy of Technology
Phonographs ( see also: Sound Recording and Reproduction )
Phosphates and Phosphate Industry
Photoelectric Cells
Photogrammetry
Photographers
Photography
Photography, Aerial
Photography, Astronomical
Photography, Color
Photography, Commercial
Photography, Documentary
Photography, Industrial
Photography, Medical
Photography, Paper
Photography, Scientific
Photography, Stereoscopic
Photography, Stroboscopic
Photography, Underwater
Photography, X-Ray
Photolithography
Photonics
Physical Laboratories
Physical Sciences
Physicists
Physics
Physics, Solar
Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt (Germany)
Physiology
Pianos
Picture Phones
Piecework
Piezoelectricity
Pigments
Pigments, Ferrous Oxide
Pile Drivers
Piling, Wooden
Pineapple Industry
Pipelines
Pipes ( N.B. Smoking )
Pipes and Pipe Laying
Pipes, Clay
Pistols
Planes (Hand Tools)
Plantations
Plants
Plants, Cultivated
Plants, Medicinal
Plasma Technology
Plaster and Plaster Industry
Plastics
Plastics Industry
Plating
Platinum and Platinum Industry
Playing Cards
Plows
Plumbing
Plutonium and Plutonium Industry
Plywood and Plywood Industry
Pneumatic Control ( see Control, Pneumatic )
Pneumatic Tube Communication
Pneumatic-Tube Transportation
Police
Political Economy
Pollution
Pollution, Air ( see Air Pollution )
Pollution, Chemical
Pollution, Radioactive
Pollution, Thermal
Pollution, Water ( see Water Pollution )
Polyester
Polymers
Polynesia
Pomerania (Germany)
Pompeii (Italy)
Popular Culture
Porcelain
Porches
Pork Industry and Trade
Pornography
Ports ( see Harbors )
Positivism
Positron Emission Tomography
Postage Stamps
Postal Service ( see Mail Delivery )
Postcards
Postmodernism
Potash
Potash Mines and Mining
Potatoes
Pottery
Pottery Kilns ( see Kilns, Pottery )
Poultry Industry
Power Transmission
Prague (Czechoslovakia)
Praxinoscope
Precision Casting
Prefabricated Buildings ( see Buildings, Prefabricated )
Prefabricated Housing ( see Housing, Prefabricated )
Prehistory, antiquity, and traditional societies
Presses
Presses, Metalworking
Presses, Screw
Pressing of Garments
Pressure Exchangers
Printing and Printing Industry ( see also: Publishers and Publishing )
Printing Press
Prisons
Privateering
Privies
Privileges and Licenses
Product Testing
Production Techniques
Productivity
Professionalization
Programming Languages
Progress, Ideas of
Prohibition
Project Apollo
Project Chariot
Project Paperclip
Project Plowshare
Projectors
Projectors, Lantern
Propaganda
Propellors
Propellors, Marine
Prospecting
Prosthesis
Protoindustrialization
Prussia (Germany)
Psychology
Public Health
Public History
Public Works
Publishers and Publishing ( see also: Printing and Printing Industry )
Publishers and Publishing, Agricultural
Pueblo Indians
Pulse-Code Modulation
Pumping Stations
Pumps
Pumps, Drainage
Pumps, Electrical
Pumps, Gasoline
Pumps, Heat
Pumps, Steam
Pumps, Suction
Pumps, Vacuum
Pumps, Water
Pyramids
Pyrenes
Pyrite Mines and Mining
Pyrometers
Pyrotechnics

Q

Quakers and Quakerism
Quality Control
Quanzhou Ship
Quarries
Québec (Canada)
Quilts and Quilting

R

R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Co.
Radar
Radiation
Radio ( see also: Broadcasting; Radios )
Radio Corporation of America
Radio Direction Finders
Radio Propagation
Radio Receivers
Radio Transmitters
Radio, Cellular
Radio, Frequency Modulation
Radio, Short Wave
Radioactivity
Radiography
Radiography, Medical
Radiology
Radiometry
Radios ( see also: Radio )
Radios, Cellular
Radios, Citizen Band
Radios, Shortwave
Radios, Transistor
Radium
Rafts
Railroad Architecture ( see Architecture, Railroad )
Railroad Bridges ( see Bridges, Railroad )
Railroad Buildings
Railroad Cabooses
Railroad Cars
Railroad Depots
Railroad Diesel Cars
Railroad Dining Cars
Railroad Engine Houses
Railroad Engineers ( see Engineers, Railroad )
Railroad Equipment Industry
Railroad Freight Cars
Railroad Freight Containers
Railroad Hopper Cars
Railroad Passenger Cars
Railroad Passenger Cars, Self-propelled
Railroad Passengers
Railroad Refrigerator Cars
Railroad Repair Shops
Railroad Roundhouses
Railroad Signals
Railroad Spikes
Railroad Stations
Railroad Switchgear
Railroad Tank Cars
Railroad Testing Cars
Railroad Tracks
Railroad Work Derricks
Railroads ( see Sections I.8.1; II.8.1; III.8.1; IV.8.1; V.8.1. (see-ref used 1987-1989) )
Railroads and Art
Railroads and Literature
Railroads and Politics
Railroads and State
Railroads, Atmospheric
Railroads, Broad Gauge
Railroads, Cable
Railroads, Cog Wheel
Railroads, Electric
Railroads, Elevated
Railroads, Freight
Railroads, Gravity
Railroads, Industrial
Railroads, Interurban
Railroads, Levitating
Railroads, Local and Light ( see also Local Transit )
Railroads, Logging
Railroads, Military
Railroads, Mining
Railroads, Mountain
Railroads, Narrow Gauge
Railroads, Rack
Railroads, Traction
Rails
Railway Electrification
Railway Steamships
Railways, Electric
Raisins and Raisin Industry
Rams
Ranchers and Ranching
Rangefinders
Rapeseed Industry
Rayon Industry
Razors and Razor Industry
Reading
Real Estate
Reapers
Recovery Vehicles
Recuperators
Recycling
Reformation
Refrigeration
Regional Development
Regional Planning
Reliability (Engineering)
Remote Sensing
Reproduction Technologies
Research and Development ( see also: Industrial Laboratories; Military Research; Physics; Research Parks, etc. )
Research Parks
Reservoirs
Responsibility
Retail Trade
Revolutionary War (United States)
Rheinland-Pfalz (Germany)
Rice and Rice Industry
Rice Growing
Rings
Risk Assessment
Rivets
Rivets, Flush
Road Machinery
Road Rollers
Road-Rail Vehicles
Roads and Highways
Robotics
Rockets and Rocketry
Rollers
Rolling Mills
Rolling Mills, Rod
Roman Empire
Romania
Roof Tiles
Roofs
Rope and Rope Industry
Ropewalks
Rotary Mills
Royal Air Force (Great Britain)
Royal Flying Corps (Great Britain)
Royal Navy (Great Britain)
Royal Netherlands Navy
Rubber and Rubber Industry
Rubber and Rubber Industry, Synthetic
Rugs and Rug Weaving
Ruhr (Region of Germany)
Russia ( see also: Soviet Union )
Rye ( see also: Grain Trade )

S

Saarland (Germany)
Sabotage
Saddlery
Safety
Safety Engineering ( see Engineering, Safety )
Safety, Automotive ( see Automobile Safety )
Sailboats
Sailing Ships
Sailors
Sails
Salt and Salt Industry
Salt Mines and Mining
Saltpeter
Saltpeter Mines and Mining
Sandbaggers (Ships)
Sandstone and Sandstone Industry
Sanitation
Sankt Gallen (Switzerland)
Satellites
Satellites, Artificial
Saw Industry
Sawmills
Saws
Saws, Chain
Saws, Circular
Saws, Stump
Saxons
Saxony
Scales
Scandinavia
Scarcity
Schooners
Science
Science and Art
Science and Civilization
Science and Culture
Science and Government
Science and Law
Science and Literature
Science and Politics
Science and Society
Science and State
Science and Technology
Science Fiction
Science Museum (London)
Scientific Management
Scientists
Scissors
Scotch Brand Tape
Screwdrivers
Screws
Screws, Wooden
Scribes
Sculpture
Scythes
Sea Otter Skin Industry
Seal Hunting
Seamstresses
Seaplanes
Sears, Roebuck and Company
Secrecy
Security Systems
Seed Industry and Trade
Seismology
Self Baking Electrode
Semiconductor Industry ( see Electronics Industry; Microelectronics Industry )
Sensors
Sensors, Chemical
Servants
Servants, Domestic
Service Stations
Sewerage
Sewing and Embroidery
Sewing Machines
Sextants
Sexual Behavior
Shakers
Shears
Sheep
Shields
Shingles
Ship Blocks
Ship Lifts ( see also: Canal Lifts )
Shipbuilding
Shipbuilding Industry
Shippingport (Nuclear Power Station)
Ships and Shipping ( see also: Barges; Battleships; Boats; Canoes; Catamarans; Cruisers; Cutters; Destroyers; Ferryboats; Frigates; Galleys; Gunboats; Ironclads; Junks; Minesweepers; Motorboats; Naval Vessels; Rafts; Rams; Sailboats; Sailing Ships; Schooners; Steamships; Submarines; Tankers; Trawling; Tugboats; Yachts and Yachting, etc. )
Ships and Shipping, Concrete
Ships and Shipping, Merchant
Ships and Shipping, Oared
Ships and Shipping, Paddle-Wheel
Ships and Shipping, Passenger
Ships and Shipping, Whaleback
Ships and Shipping, Whaling
Shipyards
Shoe Industry
Shoe Machinery Industry
Shoes
Shovels
Siberia (Russia)
Sidewinder (Missile)
Siege Warfare
Signals and Signalling
Signals Intelligence
Signs and Signboards
Signs and Symbols
Silicon
Silicon Carbide
Silicon Valley (California)
Silk and Silk Industry
Silos ( see also: Grain Silos )
Silver and Silver Industry
Silver Mines and Mining
Silversmiths
Silverwork
Simulators
Siphons
Skateboards
Sketchpad (Computer Program)
Skis
Skis, Water
Skyscrapers
Slate
Slavery
Sleds
Sleds, Motorized
Slide Rules
Slings
Slovakia
Smelting
Smithsonian Institution (Washington, D.C.)
Smoke Abatement
Smokestacks
Snow Removal
Snowplows
Soap Industry
Social Engineering
Social Sciences
Socialism
Societies, Aeronautical
Societies, Agricultural
Societies, Engineering
Societies, Scientific and Technical
Society for the History of Technology
Society of Architectural Historians
Society of Coal Merchants
Soda and Soda Industry
Soft Drink Industry
Software
Soil Erosion
Soil Science
Solar Cookers
Solar Energy
Solder and Soldering
Solenarion (Weapon)
Sonar
Sonograms
Sound Recording and Reproduction ( see also: Phonographs )
Sound Recording Industry
Soviet Union ( see also: Russia )
Soybean Industry
Space Communications
Space Programs ( see also: Astronautics )
Space Research
Space Shuttle
Space Station
Space Travel
Space Warfare
Spacecraft
Spacesuits
Spanish Civil War (1936-1939)
Spanish-American War (1898)
Spears
Spectrometers
Spectroscopy
Spectroscopy, Infrared
Speech Recognition
Speech Synthesis
Speedometers
Spices and Spice Industry
Spinning
Spinning Machinery
Spinning, Open-End
Spirometers
Spitfire (Fighter)
Sporting Goods
Springs and Spring Industry
Sputnik
SS-20 (Missile)
Stagecoaches
Stakhanov Movement
Standard Oil (Firm)
Standards
Statics
Statistics
Steam Boilers
Steam Condensers
Steam Engines
Steam Engines, Stationary
Steam Hammers
Steam Locomotives ( see Locomotives, Steam )
Steam Power Stations
Steam Shovels
Steam Turbines
Steamboats
Steamships
Steamships, Paddle-Wheel
Steel Alloys
Steel and Steel Industry
Steel and Steel Industry, Stainless
Stenography
Stereoscopes
Stereotomy
Sterilization
Stethoscopes
Stocking Frame
Stockings and Stocking Industry ( see also: Hosiery )
Stockyards
Stone Beads
Stone, Cast
Stone, Crushed
Stonecutting
Stonemasonry
Stoves and Stovemaking
Strategic Defense Initiative
Straw and Straw Industry
Straw Plaiting
Streetcars
Streetcars, Electric
Streetcars, Horse-Drawn
Streetcars, Interurban
Streets ( see Roads and Highways )
Strontium and Strontium Industry
Strontium Mines and Mining
Stroudwater Canal
Stucco
Submarine Mines
Submarines
Submarines, Nuclear
Suburban Development
Subway Stations
Subways
Sugar and Sugar Industry
Sulfur and Sulfur Industry
Sulphuric Acic and Sulphuric Acid Industry
Sunbeam (Firm)
Sundials
Sunglasses
Superchargers
Supercomputers
Supermarkets
Surgery
Surveying
Surveying, Hydrographic
Sweat Shops
Switchboards ( see also: Telephone Switching )
Switchgear
Swords
Synthetic Fuels Industry
System Development Foundation
System Failures (Engineering)
Systems Theory

T

Tableware
Tacoma Narrows Bridge (Washington)
Talcum
Tankers
Tankhouses
Tanks
Tanning
Tape Recorders ( see also: Sound Recording and Reproduction )
Tar and Tar Industry
Tariffs
Tatara (Steel)
Taxicabs
Tay Rail Bridge
Taylorism ( see Scientific Management )
Tea and Tea Industry
Technical Education ( see Education, Technical )
Technical Language
Technocracy
Technological innovation ( see also: Innovation )
Technological Literacy
Technology and Art
Technology and Civilization
Technology and Culture
Technology and Film
Technology and Government
Technology and Law
Technology and Literature
Technology and Music
Technology and Politics
Technology and Race
Technology and Society
Technology and Sports
Technology and State
Technology and Theater
Technology Assessment
Technology Forecasting
Technology Licensing
Technology Transfer
Technometry
Telecommunications
Telecommunications Towers
Telefacsimile Machines ( see Facsimile Transmission )
Telegraph
Telegraph, Wireless
Telegraphone
Telephone Industry
Telephone Switching ( see also: Switchboards )
Telephones
Telephones, Cellular
Telephones, Digital
Telephones, Wireless
Telescopes
Telescopes, Target
Television
Television, Cable
Television, Color
Television, High-Definition
Television, High-Transmission
Telex
Temperature
Tennessee Valley Authority
Terminology, Technical
Terra Cotta
Test Pilots
Testing
Testing, Non-destructive
Teutonic Knights
Textile Fabrics
Textile Industry ( see also: Cotton Industry; Flax Industry; Silk and Silk Industry; Wool Industry )
Textile Museums ( see Museums, Textile )
Textile Printing
Textiles
Theaters
Thermal Power
Thermodynamics
Thermogravimetry
Thermometers
Thimbles
Thomas Iron Company
Thompson-Houston Company
Threshing
Threshing Machines
Tiles
Time
Timekeeping ( see Clocks and Watches; Horology; Sundials )
Tin and Tin Industry
Tin and Tin Industry, Cast
Tin Mines and Mining
Tinning
Tintype
Tire Industry
Tires
Tires, Rubber
Tobacco Industry
Toilets
Tokamak Devices
Tombstones
Tool and Die Industry
Tools
Tools, Agricultural
Tools, Bone
Tools, Drilling
Tools, Glass-cutting
Tools, Grinding
Tools, Iron
Tools, Metal
Tools, Obsidian
Tools, Stone
Tools, Wooden
Tools, Woodworking
Toolsmiths
Torpedo-Boats
Torpedoes
Torquemeters
Tour Eiffel (Paris)
Touring
Tourism ( see also: Travel )
Towers
Toys
Toys, Mechanical
Tractors
Trade
Trade Catalogs
Trade-Unions
Trademarks
Traffic Planning
Transdermal Drug Patches
Transformers
Transformers, Electric
Transistor
Transportation ( see Sections I.8-I.8.3; II.8-II.8.3; III.8-III.8.3; IV.8-IV.8.3; V.8-V.8.3 )
Transportation, Horse-drawn
Transportation, Motorized
Traps
Travel ( see also: Tourism )
Travel, Recreational
Travelling-wave Tubes
Trawling
Treadwheels
Trebuchets
Triplanes
Trireme (Greek Ship)
TRITON (Computer)
Trolleys ( see Streetcars )
Trucking Industry
Trucks
Trucks, Fork Lift
Trusses
Tucker (Automobile)
Tugboats
Tungsten and Tungsten Industry
Tunneling Equipment
Tunnels
Tunnels, Railroad
Tupolev-144 (Aircraft)
Turbines
Turbines, Combined Cycle Gas
Turbines, Gas
Turbines, Steam
Turbulence
Turning
Turnpikes
Turpentine
Turquoise and Turquoise Industry
Type and Type-founding
Typesetting
Typesetting Machines
Typewriter Industry
Typewriters
Typography

U

U-2 (Reconnaissance Aircraft)
U.S. Air Force
U.S. Air Force. Strategic Air Command
U.S. Air Mail Service
U.S. Air National Guard
U.S. Army
U.S. Army Air Corps
U.S. Army Air Force
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
U.S. Army Signal Corps
U.S. Atomic Energy Commission
U.S. Bureau of Aeronautics
U.S. Bureau of Air Commerce
U.S. Bureau of Mines
U.S. Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography
U.S. Bureau of Reclamation
U.S. Bureau of the Census
U.S. Central Intelligence Agency
U.S. Civilian Conservation Corps
U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey
U.S. Coast Guard
U.S. Coast Survey
U.S. Congress
U.S. Congress. Joint Committee on Nuclear Energy
U.S. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment
U.S. Department of Agriculture
U.S. Department of Defense
U.S. Department of Defense, Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)
U.S. Department of the Interior
U.S. Electric Home and Farm Authority
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. Federal Extension Service
U.S. Federal Highway Administration
U.S. Food and Drugs Act.
U.S. Forest Service
U.S. Geological Survey
U.S. Hydrographic Office
U.S. Interstate Commerce Commission
U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff
U.S. Life Saving Service
U.S. Lighthouse Service
U.S. Marine Corps
U.S. Merchant Marine
U.S. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration ( see National Aeronautics and Space Administration )
U.S. National Archives
U.S. National Archives and Records Administration
U.S. National Park Service
U.S. Naval Air Reserve
U.S. Naval Research Laboratory
U.S. Navy
U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission
U.S. Office of Science and Development
U.S. Office of Strategic Services
U.S. Revenue-Cutter Service
U.S. Shipping Board
U.S. Soil Conservation Service
U.S. Weather Bureau
U.S. Women Airforce Service Pilots
Ultra
Umbrellas and Parasols
Underwater Diving
Unemployment
Unidentified Flying Objects
UNIVAC
Universities
Universities, Technical
Ural Mountains Region (Russia)
Uranium Industry
Uranium Mines and Mining
Urban Development ( see also: Suburban Development )
Urban History
Urban Planning
Utah
Utilities ( see Electric Utility Industry; Gas Supply Industry; Telephone Industry; Water Supply, etc. )
Utopias

V

V-1 (Cruise Missile)
V-2 (Ballistic Missile)
Vacuum Cleaners
Vacuum Technology
Vacuum Tubes
Valves
Valves, Safety
Valves, Thermionic
Varnish and Varnish Industry
Vaults
Velcro
Veneer Industry
Venezuela
Ventilation ( see Heating and Ventilation )
Verein Deutscher Ingenieure
Viaducts
Vibrators, Electromechanical
Video Discs
Video Display Terminals
Video Games
Video Recorders
Video Recordings
Video Technology
Videophones
Videotext
Vienna (Austria)
Vienna Basin (Austria and Czechoslovakia)
Vienna International Exhibition (1873)
Vietnam War
Vikings
Virtual Reality
Visionics
Visual Perception
Vitamins
Viticulture and Viticulture Industry

W

W.H. Allen Sons & Company (Firm)
Wagons and Wagonmaking
War of 1812
Warehouses
Washing Machines
Waste Disposal
Water Analysis
Water Heaters
Water Management
Water Mills
Water Pollution
Water Power ( see also: Hydroelectric Power )
Water Pumps ( see Pumps, Water )
Water Purification
Water Supply
Water Tanks
Water Wheels
Water, Bottled
Waterfronts
Waterproofing
Watertowers
Waterworks
Weapons ( see Arms and Armor; Atomic Bomb; Bullets; Crossbows; Firearms; Gunpowder; Longbows; Machine Gun; Military Technology; Missiles; Nuclear Weapons; Rockets and Rocketry; Swords; Torpedoes, etc. )
Weaving
Weights and Measures
Welding and Welding Industry
West Indies
Westphalia (Germany)
Whaling
Wheat ( see also: Grain Trade )
Wheelbarrows
Wheels
Wheelwrights
Whiskey Industry
Winches
Wind Power
Wind Tunnels
Windbreaks
Windlasses
Windmills
Windows
Windscale ( see British Nuclear Fuels Limited. Windscale and Calder Works )
Wine and Winemaking
Wire and Wire Industry
Wire-Rope Industry
Woad
Wolves
Women
Women and Technology
Women and Work
Women Architects
Women Astronauts
Women Aviators
Women Designers
Women in Agriculture
Women in Engineering
Women in Forestry
Women in Science
Women in the Military
Women Inventors
Women Mapmakers
Women Scientists
Women Typesetters
Women's Auxiliary Air Force
Women's Land Service (New Zealand)
Wood
Wood-carving, Islamic
Wood-Pulp Industry
Wool Industry ( see also: Textile Industry )
Work Ethic
Work Hours
World War I
World War II
World's Columbian Exposition (Chicago, 1893)
Writing
Writing Machines
Writing, Hieroglyphic
Württemberg (Germany)

X

X-Ray Tubes
X-Rays
Xylography

Y

Yachts and Yachting
Yarn Industry
Yeast
Yellowstone Park

Z

Zinc and Zinc Industry
Zinc Mines and Mining
Zinc Smelting
Zippers
Zoning and Building Codes
Zurich (Switzerland)