Abstract

Introduction

Literature Review

Rationale & Hypotheses

Methods

Results

Discussion

References

Home

References

Barge K.J. (1994). Leadership: Communication Skills for Organizations and Group. New York: St. Martin Press.

Becker, L. (1979). Measurement of gratifications. Communication Research, 6, 54-73.

Blumler, J. The role of theory in uses and gratifications studies. Communication Research, 6, 9-36.

Burgoon, J. & Hale J. (1983). A research note of the dimensions of communication reticence. Communication Quarterly, 31, 238-248.

Drake, B.H., & Moberg D.J., (1986). Communicating influence attempts in dyads: Linguistic sedatives and palliatives. Academy of Management Review, 2, 567-584.

Fisher, B.A. & Ellis, D.G. (1990). Small group decision making: Communication and the group process. New York: McGraw Hill Publishing Co.

Garramone, G. (1984). Audience motivation effects. Communication Research, 11, 79-96.

Harris, T.E. & Sherblom J.C. (1999). Small group and team communication. Needham Heights, Mass: Allyn & Bacon.

Infante, D.A., Rancer, A.S., Womack, D.F. (1997). Building communication theory. Illinois: Waveland Press, Inc.

Krone, K.J. (1991). Effects of leader-member exchange on subordinates' upward influence attempts. Communication Research Reports, 8, 9-18.

Levy, M. & Windahl, S. (1984). Audience activity and gratifications. Communication Research, 11, 51-78.

Lowery, S. & De Fleur, M. (1983). Milestones in mass communication research: Media effects. New York: Longman Publishers.

MacIntyre, P.D. & Thivierge, K.A. (1995). The effects of audience pleasantness, audience familiarity, and speaking contexts on public speaking anxiety and willingness to speak. Communication Quarterly, 43, 456-466.

McCroskey, J. (1982). Oral communication apprehension: A reconceptualization. In M. Burgoon (Ed.), Communication Yearbook 6 (pp. 136-170). New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Books.

McCroskey, J. (1984). The communication apprehension perspective. In J. Daly & J. McCroskey (Eds.), Avoiding Communication (pp. 13-38). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Miller, M.D. (1987). The relationship of communication reticence and negative expectations. Communication Education, 35, 228-235.

Nebecker, D.M. & Mitchell, T.R. (1974). Leader behavior: an expectancy theory approach. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 11, (3) 355-367.

Rubin, A. (1979). Television use by children and adolescents. Human Communication Research, 5, 109-120.

Rubin, A. (1983). Television uses and gratifications: The interactions of viewing patterns and motivations. Journal of Broadcasting, 27, 37-51.

Rubin, A. (1984). Ritualized and instrumental television viewing. Journal of Communication, 34, 67-77.

Rubin, A. (1986). Uses, gratifications, and media effects research. In J. Bryant & D. Zillman, (Eds.), Perspectives on media effects (pp. 281-302). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers

Swanson, D. (1979). The continuing evolution of the uses and gratifications approach. Communication Research, 6, 3-7.

Appendix I: Survey

Thank you for your participation in this research. The focus of this study is to explore and determine what influences affect commanderís willingness to support public affairs throughout the Department of Defense. Please answer the questions as honestly as possible. Your answers and responses will remain completely anonymous.

For comments or questions about this research project, contact Meghan Mariman, LT, USN.

The first section of this survey asks for some general information. Please write or type your response in the appropriate space provided for each question.

1. What is your branch of service?

Army
Navy
Air Force
Marine Corps
Coast Guard

2. What is your rank?

E4-E6
E7-E9
GS 5-9
GS 10-15
O-1, O-2
O-3, O-4
O-5, O-6

3. How old are you?

4. Sex

Male
Female

5. Is public affairs your primary career field?

Yes
No

6. How many years have you been in public affairs?

7. How long have you been working with your present commander?

Less than 1
1 year
2 years
3 years
4 years or more

The next portion of the survey asks some questions about your commander's perceptions of different aspects of the public affairs mission. Please click on the corresponding button next to the appropriate response:

8. My commander feels that the media rarely get the story correct.

Strongly Disagree
Somewhat Disagree
Undecided
Somewhat Agree
Strongly Agree

9. My commander sees the media as more of a nuisance than an opportunity to tell story.

Strongly Disagree
Somewhat Disagree
Undecided
Somewhat Agree
Strongly Agree

10. My commander believes that the media are fair and objective when covering the military.

Strongly Disagree
Somewhat Disagree
Undecided
Somewhat Agree
Strongly Agree

11. My commander feels that the military has an obligation to the media and the public to release as much information as possible as quickly as possible.

Strongly Disagree
Somewhat Disagree
Undecided
Somewhat Agree
Strongly Agree

12. My commander has established good personal relations with media.

Strongly Disagree
Somewhat Disagree
Undecided
Somewhat Agree
Strongly Agree

13. My commander welcomes the opportunity to work with the media.

Strongly Disagree
Somewhat Disagree
Undecided
Somewhat Agree
Strongly Agree

14. My commander has dealt with competent, effective public affairs personnel in the past.

Strongly Disagree
Somewhat Disagree
Undecided
Somewhat Agree
Strongly Agree

15. My commander has been successful in the past at implementing public affairs programs to enhance mission effectiveness.

Strongly Disagree
Somewhat Disagree
Undecided
Somewhat Agree
Strongly Agree

16. My commanderís superior sees public affairs as a function of command.

Strongly Disagree
Somewhat Disagree
Undecided
Somewhat Agree
Strongly Agree

17. My commanderís superior believes in the importance of strong effective public affairs programs.

Strongly Disagree
Somewhat Disagree
Undecided
Somewhat Agree
Strongly Agree

18. When a significant issue arises, my commander rarely brings public affairs into the discussion.

Strongly Disagree
Somewhat Disagree
Undecided
Somewhat Agree
Strongly Agree

19. My commander sees public affairs as a non-operational function.

Strongly Disagree
Somewhat Disagree
Undecided
Somewhat Agree
Strongly Agree

20. My commander sees public affair as mission oriented.

Strongly Disagree
Somewhat Disagree
Undecided
Somewhat Agree
Strongly Agree

21. My commander will often follow public affairs advice, even if it means more difficulty in accomplishing the primary mission.

Strongly Disagree
Somewhat Disagree
Undecided
Somewhat Agree
Strongly Agree

22. My commander perceives public affairs as necessary for mission completion.

Strongly Disagree
Somewhat Disagree
Undecided
Somewhat Agree
Strongly Agree

23. My commander is interested in outlining mission requirements as they relate to public affairs.

Strongly Disagree
Somewhat Disagree
Undecided
Somewhat Agree
Strongly Agree

24. My commander often includes public affairs at mission briefings/planning sessions.

Strongly Disagree
Somewhat Disagree
Undecided
Somewhat Agree
Strongly Agree

25. My commander has confidence in public affairs to tell the mission story as it relates to the command and its personnel.

Strongly Disagree
Somewhat Disagree
Undecided
Somewhat Agree
Strongly Agree

26. My commander gives support to public affairs to tell the mission story.

Strongly Disagree
Somewhat Disagree
Undecided
Somewhat Agree
Strongly Agree

27. My commander feels they have received effective job training with regard to their public affairs responsibilities.

Strongly Disagree
Somewhat Disagree
Undecided
Somewhat Agree
Strongly Agree

28. My commander feels the public affairs training for them is conducted often enough.

Strongly Disagree
Somewhat Disagree
Undecided
Somewhat Agree
Strongly Agree

29. My commander feels there is an improvement in public affairs education after training.

Strongly Disagree
Somewhat Disagree
Undecided
Somewhat Agree
Strongly Agree

30. My commander feels more training should be made available to them to improve public affairs support.

Strongly Disagree
Somewhat Disagree
Undecided
Somewhat Agree
Strongly Agree

31. My commander understands the purpose of public affairs education.

Strongly Disagree
Somewhat Disagree
Undecided
Somewhat Agree
Strongly Agree

32. My commander understands the advantages of public affairs education programs.

Strongly Disagree
Somewhat Disagree
Undecided
Somewhat Agree
Strongly Agree

33. My commander feels they have a well-defined public affairs program.

Strongly Disagree
Somewhat Disagree
Undecided
Somewhat Agree
Strongly Agree

34. My commander feels they meet with public affairs as often as need be.

Strongly Disagree
Somewhat Disagree
Undecided
Somewhat Agree
Strongly Agree

35. My commander is supportive of current public affairs initiatives.

Strongly Disagree
Somewhat Disagree
Undecided
Somewhat Agree
Strongly Agree

36. My commander is supportive of new public affairs initiatives.

Strongly Disagree
Somewhat Disagree
Undecided
Somewhat Agree
Strongly Agree

37. My commander often develops public affairs programs that support subordinate units.

Strongly Disagree
Somewhat Disagree
Undecided
Somewhat Agree
Strongly Agree

38. My commander initiates public affairs programs that support subordinate units.

Strongly Disagree
Somewhat Disagree
Undecided
Somewhat Agree
Strongly Agree

39. My commander assists public affairs programs for subordinate units.

Strongly Disagree
Somewhat Disagree
Undecided
Somewhat Agree
Strongly Agree

40. My commander takes an active interest in public affairs programs.

Strongly Disagree
Somewhat Disagree
Undecided
Somewhat Agree
Strongly Agree

41. My commander fully understands the purpose of public affairs.

Strongly Disagree
Somewhat Disagree
Undecided
Somewhat Agree
Strongly Agree

42. My commander understands the needs of public affairs.

Strongly Disagree
Somewhat Disagree
Undecided
Somewhat Agree
Strongly Agree

43. My commander feels that public affairs has an important role.

Strongly Disagree
Somewhat Disagree
Undecided
Somewhat Agree
Strongly Agree

44. My commander feels that the public affairs program has the commandís best interests in mind.

Strongly Disagree
Somewhat Disagree
Undecided
Somewhat Agree
Strongly Agree

45. My commander feels that an inadequate action on behalf of public affairs can cause them not to be promoted/career.

Strongly Disagree
Somewhat Disagree
Undecided
Somewhat Agree
Strongly Agree

46. My commander feels that public affairs can cause embarrassment.

Strongly Disagree
Somewhat Disagree
Undecided
Somewhat Agree
Strongly Agree

47. My commander knows of others who have been caused embarrassment by public affairs.

Strongly Disagree
Somewhat Disagree
Undecided
Somewhat Agree
Strongly Agree

48. My commander is overly cautious with public affairs.

Strongly Disagree
Somewhat Disagree
Undecided
Somewhat Agree
Strongly Agree

49. How confident are you in the accuracy of the answers regarding your commander's perceptions of Public Affairs?

Not at all confident
Somewhat confident
Confident
Very confident

The last portion of the survey asks you to list any other influences not addressed in this survey that may affect a commanderís support of public affairs. Please enter your response below.


[survey has been disabled and no longer accepts submissions.]

Appendix 2: Capstone Comments Coding Sheet

Coding instructions: Review each comment for content and classify each comment as either POSITIVE or NEGATIVE in terms of understanding and support. If a comment does not fall into one of these categories, classify it as OTHER.

POSITIVE = 1
NEGATIVE = 2
OTHER = 3

Categories:

1. POSITIVE: My Commander understands the role, significance and importance of Public Affairs, and therefore provides support.

Examples:

1. My Commander includes me.
2. My Commander does interviews.
3. My Commander communicates with me.
4. My Commander realizes that the media serve a purpose.
5. My Commander involves media.

2. NEGATIVE: My Commander is unsupportive and does not understand the role, significance, or importance of Public Affairs personnel, programs, or initiatives.

1. My Commander does not understand my role.
2. My Commander does not support Public Affairs programs.
3. My Commander does not like to work with the media.
4. My Commander does not seek Public Affairs guidance.
5. My Commander does not recognize the value of Public Affairs.
6. My Commander does not seize opportunities to work w/ Public Affairs.

TOTAL #1 comments = 25
TOTAL #2 comments = 41
TOTAL #3 comments = 108
TOTAL comments classified = 174

Meghan Mariman, LT, USN | Steve Butler, CAPT, USMC | Cameron Porter, SSGT, USA