Literature Review

Appendix A
Appendix B

The current military operation in Iraq has been covered by the media like no other operation in the history of the world due in large part from embedded journalists. The types of coverage used by the media in wartime have been the subject of many debates. This study examines the utilization of embedded print reporters to determine if these reporters produce more positive coverage of the U.S. military and its personnel. Additionally, this paper explores differences in the framing of stories produced by embeds versus non-embeds. A content analysis was conducted to assess the hypothesis. Newspaper stories of combat published the first five days after ground operations had begun in the 1991 Gulf War, 2002 Operation Enduring Freedom, and 2003 operation Iraqi Freedom were analyzed to assess embed and non-embed coverage. The results indicate embedded journalists produce more positive stories and use more episodic framing in their war coverage compared to non-embed reporting.