|The Omnibus 3 x 3 MANCOVA revealed a difference in coverage
between embedded journalists and other journalists, F(8,340) = 18.83, p
< .01, eta2 = .17, with univariate tests indicating significant differences
in overall tone toward the military, F(2,173) = 15.81, p < .01, eta2
= .15, trust F(2,173) = 15.34, p < .01, eta2 = .15, episodic coverage,
F(2,173) = 18.83, p < .01, eta2 = .18, thematic coverage, F(2,173) =
7.76, p < .01, eta2 = .08. To determine these differences in the four
dependent variables a planned comparison, employing Dunn's multiple comparison
procedure (Kirk, 1995), was computed comparing embedded reporter coverage
to non-embed and other reporters. The results indicated embeds produce more
positive coverage of the military than other reporters, F(1,173) = 43.03,
p < .01, embeds show a higher trust factor when depicting military personnel,
F(1,173) = 11.68, p < .01, embeds use more episodic framing in articles
than other reporters, F(1,173) = 6.01, p < .01, embeds use less thematic
framing than other reporters, F(1,173) = 35.96, p < .01.
The Omnibus MANCOVA also indicated significant differences in war coverage, F(8,340) = 2.3, P < .03, eta2 = .05 with univariate tests on two dependent variables attitude and episodic. The univariate tests indicated a significant difference in the attitude toward the military, F(2,173) = 3.46, p < .04, eta2 = .04, and indicated a marginal difference in episodic framing within each war, F(2,173) = 2.75, p < .07, eta2 = .03. To determine the differences of attitude and episodic framing, a post-hoc test was conducted comparing the three wars. The post-hoc test results indicated Desert Storm coverage produced more positive tone of coverage than Operation Enduring Freedom, t = 6.15, p < .01, Operation Iraqi Freedom, t = 3.39, p < .01. Desert Storm coverage was more episodic than Operation Enduring Freedom, t = 7.69, p < .01, Operation Iraqi Freedom coverage was more episodic than Operation Enduring Freedom, t = 11.12, p < .01.