Abstract


During the war in Iraq, the U.S. military allowed hundreds of journalists to embed with military units and travel with them during combat operations. This study examines the impact that embedding had on news reports about the operation. The study compares newspaper reports from embedded and non-embedded journalists over three-week periods of the war: the beginning of the invasion phase and a three-week period of the occupation phase. News reports were examined for differences in framing, authoritativeness, and the amount of emotion elicited from readers. Articles were selected from the two three-week periods using a stratified random sampling technique and were then content analyzed. The results of the study showed a significant difference in overall tone toward the military, trust in military individuals, and the framing and authoritativeness of the articles.