DoD Seal 



American Psychological Association. (1993) Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (4th ed.). Washington DC: Author. (plus extract provided to the DoD Joint Program in Communication) 

Aukofer, F. and Lawrence, W. (n.d.) America's Team; The Odd Couple-A Report on the Relationship Between the Media and the Military. [Online]. Available: /publicat/military/toc.htm. 

Berelson, B. (1952). Content analysis in communication research. New York: The Free Press of Glencoe. 

Berger, C. R., & Calabrese, R. J. (1975). Some Explorations in Initial Interaction and Beyond: Toward a Developmental Theory of Interpersonal Communication. Human Communication Research, v1 (pp. 99-112). 

Bernays, E. (1928). Propaganda. New York, NY: Horace Liveright. 

Brock, T. C., Ostrom, T. M., & Petty, R. E. (Eds.) (1981). Cognitive responses in persuasion. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. 

Budd, W., Thorp, R. K., & Donohew, L. (1967). Content analysis in communication. New York: The Macmillan Company. 

Castelveter, D. A. (1993) Media on the battlefield. Army Reserve Magazine, Fall 1993, v39 n3 (pp. 20-21). 

Duhe, S. and Zoch, L. (1994). A case study - framing the media's agenda during a crisis. (Exxon Corp.'s public relations management). Public Relations Quarterly, 39, n4 p42-47. 

Ewing, J. H. (1991). The new Sherman letters. In L. J. Mathews (Ed.), Newsmen and national defense: is conflict inevitable? (pp. 19-29). Washington, DC: Brassey’s (US), Inc. 

Flanagan, P. (1995) Ten public relations pitfalls. Management Review, 84, 45-49 
Fore, W. F. (1991). The shadow war in the gulf. Media Development, Special Issue: Reporting the Gulf War, (pp. 51-52). 

Frohlichstein, T. (1998). Get information to the media quickly. St. Louis Journalism Review, 28 (205: 7-8) [Online]. Available: /535/544/2138939w1/8!xrn_1&bkm, Article A20562431. 

Hammond, W. M. (1988). Public affairs: the military and the media, 1962-1968. Washington, DC: Center of Military History, United States Army 

Hoffman, F. S. (1991). The Panama press pool: a critique. In L. J. Mathews (Ed.), Newsmen and national defense: is conflict inevitable? (pp. 91-109). Washington, DC: Brassey’s (US), Inc. 

Holmes, D. (1986). Media freedom in the U. S. and Great Britain. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. 

Hooper, A. (1982). The military and the media. Aldershot, England: Glower Publishing Company Limited. 

Hudson, M. & Stanier, J. (1998). War and the media: a random searchlight. New York: New York University Press. 

Hughes, M. (1992). Words at war: reflections of a marine public affairs officer in the Persian gulf. In P. Hernon (Ed.) Government Information Quarterly, 1992, v9 n4 (pp. 431-472). 

Infante, D. A., Rancer, A. S. & Womack, D. F. (1997) Building communication theory, Prospect Heights, IL, Waveland Press. 

Iyengar, S., & Simon, A. (1993). News coverage of the gulf crisis and public opinion. Communication Research, June 1993, v20 n3 (pp. 365-383). 

Johnsen W. T. (1998) Force planning considerations for army XXI. Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, Carlisle, PA 

Katz, S. L. (1992) Ground zero: the information war in the Persian gulf. In P. Hernon (Ed.) Government Information Quarterly, 1991, v9 n4 (pp. 375-408). 

Kennedy C. (1998) The age of revolution., Letort Paper No. 3. Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, Carlisle, PA. 

Kennedy, W. V. (1993). The military and the media: why the press cannot be trusted to cover a war. Westport, CT: Praeger. 

Kirtley, J. E. (1992). The eye of the sandstorm: the erosion of first amendment principles in wartime. In P. Hernon (Ed.) Government Information Quarterly, 1991, v9 n4 (pp. 473-490). 

Lippmann, W. R. (1921). Public Opinion. New York: Macmillan 

Lukaszweski, J. E. (1997). Establishing individual and corporate crisis communication standards: the principles and protocols. Public Relations Quarterly, 42, n3 7-8. 

McCormack, T. (1961). Social Theory and the Mass Media. Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science, v4 (pp. 479-489). 

Nohrstedt, S. A. (1992). Ruling by pooling. In H. Mowlana, G. Gerbner, & H. I Schiller (Eds), Triumph of the image: the media’s war in the Persian Gulf – a global perspective (pp. 118-127). Boulder, CO: Westview Press. 

Nuttin, J. M. (1974). The illusion of attitude change. New York, NY: Academic Press, Inc. Parameters: journal of the US Army War College, December 1990, v. XX n. 4 (pp. 2-11). 

Perea, R. & Morrison, S. (1997). Preparing for a crisis. (crisis in the school setting). Educational Leadership, 55, 42-43. 

Roach, C. (1993). Information and Culture in War and Peace. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. 

Sconyers R. T. (1995) Revolutionary air force public affairs. Air Power Journal, pp. 1-8 

Sommer, B. & Sommer, R. (1997) A practical guide to behavioral research New York, Oxford University Press 

Stanton, A. (1989). On the home front. Public Relations Journal, 45 n9 p15-17 [Online]. Available: .!bmk_7. 

Tilford E. H. (1995) The revolution in military affairs: prospects and cautions. Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, Carlisle, PA 

Trainor, B. E. (1990). The military and the media: a troubled embrace. 

Wilermuth, R. E. (1992). The military and the media: they can both win. In P. Hernon (Ed.) Government Information Quarterly, 1992, v9 n4 (pp. 409-418). 

Willey, B. E. (1991). Military-media relations comes of age. In L. J. Mathews (Ed.), Newsmen and national defense: is conflict inevitable? (pp. 81-89). Washington, DC: Brassey’s (US), Inc. 

Umansky, D. (1993). How to survive and prosper when it hits the fan. Public Relations Quarterly, 38 n4 p32-36. [Online]. Available: Searchbank. Article A152717904. 

Upmeyer, A. (Ed.) (1989). Springer Series in Social Psychology: Attitudes and behavioral decisions. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 

U.S. Air Force (1996) Military operations other than war. Air Force Doctrine Document 2-3 U.S. Army (1997) FM 46-1 Public affairs operations. 

U.S. Army (1993) FM 100-5 Operations. 

U.S. Army (1996) FM 100-6 Information operations. 

U.S. Army (1992) In the spotlight: media and the tactical commander, U.S. Army Center For Army Lessons Learned (CALL) Newsletter 92-7, Fort Leavenworth, KS. 

U.S. Department of Defense (1997) Principles of information. 

U.S. Department of Defense (1995) Joint Pub 3-0 Doctrine for joint operations. 

U.S. Department of Defense (1997) Joint Pub 3-61 Doctrine for public affairs in joint operations. 

U.S. Department of Defense (1997) Joint task force commander’s handbook for peace operations, Joint Warfighting Center. 

U.S. Marine Corps (1996) MCRP 3-01A Unit training management guide U.S. Marine Corps (1996) MCDP 6 Command and control. 

Whittaker, J. O. (1968). Resolution of the communication discrepancy issue in attitude change. In Sherif and Sherif (Eds.) Attitude, Ego-Involvement, and Change. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (p. 159-177). 

Woodward, G. C. (1993). The rules of the game: the military and press in the Persian Gulf War. In R. E. Denton, Jr., (Ed.), The media and the Persian Gulf War (pp. 1-26). Westport, CT: Praeger. 

Zoch, L. and Duhe, S., (1998). ``Feeding the media'' during a crisis: a nationwide look. Public Relations Quarterly, 42, (3):15-20. 

This page last updated on July 23, 1998. 

For more information on military public affairs activities see one of the following homepages: 

Air Force   |   Army   |   Marines   |   Navy   |   Department of Defense