Procedures

Gudykunst and Hammer (1983) differentiated training techniques as didactic versus experiential and culture specific versus culture general (as cited in Burleson, 1997). Cargile and Giles states a didactic approach uses lectures in a formal training session while experiential methods entail intellect emotions and behavior usually through simulated environments or role playing (Burleson, 1997). Cargile and Giles also found that culture specific training provides information about a culture and rules for interacting with people of that culture. On the other hand, culture general techniques endeavor to increase a trainees understanding of the effect global influences have within a culture.

For the purpose of this study, the didactic culture specific format was consider the most effective approach for instituting training programs. Briefings, brochures, videos and other training tools comprise the "area studies program" which is defined as a presentation focusing on a particular country and its inhabitants (Burleson, 1997). Based on Gudykunst and Hammerís model, the environmental briefings include narratives of the local, history, geography, economics and cultural orientations. The orientations generally include facts about particular cultural groups and their behaviors often in the form of "Doís" and "Dontís" intended to observe host nation sensitivities.

Cargile and Giles offer a model of how intercultural training works. When looking at the didactic-culture specific (e.g. culture studies) have an immediate outcome of increasing the knowledge of the trainees. The intercultural-interaction outcome on the attitudes of trainees then is an understanding of the hosts and host nation environment. Based on this model, an effective intercultural training program will lead to reduced stress and anxiety among deploying servicemembers.

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