Literature Review 
     Before making propositions, this team looked at the theoretical framework guiding this research.  For research purposes compliance gaining, agenda-setting, and diffusion of innovations were to help meet theoretical objectives of this research. 

     This theory suggests using certain strategies such as reward, punishment, both positive and negative, will enable a persuader to gain the compliance of the intended audience (Miller, Bolster, Roloff & Seibold, 1977).  This theory will be used to persuade servicemembers the value of public affairs in operations planning and day-to-day activities.  Research indicates gaining the compliance of an intended audience is one of the most common uses of communication (Littlejohn, 1996).  Although the taxonomy of 16 compliance-gaining strategies introduced by Marwell and Schmitt (1967) were thorough and complete, researchers agreed shortening the strategies by choosing the best tactics and tailoring them to the speakers goals works best (Littlejohn, 1996).  

     Of the 16 strategies, this team chose, promising, threatening and expertise as strategies to try to persuade military leaders to better utilize their public affairs officers.  The intent of this paper is to educate leaders on the utility of public affairs.  If leaders begin to include public affairs in the planning of operations, their reward will come in the form of a more successful public affairs mission.  Fink (1986) wrote a crisis is a turning point with a degree of risk and uncertainty with at least half a chance of the outcome being negative.  If public affairs practitioners are part of the operational planning, they would be in a much better position to produce and implement a crisis communication plan should the need arise.  Afterall, the best time to prepare for a crisis is when there is none (Fink, 1986).    

Should leaders continue to ignore the importance of public affairs in their operations planning, this team fears an imminent risk of poor public affairs performance lies ahead.  How can public affairs officers adequately field questions if they are uninformed?  Should public affairs even be fielding questions about what the military is doing?  Department of Defense Directive  5122.5 (1996) states public affairs is vital and established the position of Assistant Secretary of Defense Public Affairs.  One of the responsibilities for the ASD PA is not only to ensure a “free flow of news and information” to the press, American public and Armed Forces internal audiences, but also to develop policies and plans that will support Department of Defense objectives and operations (   To further persuade servicemembers to better utilize public affairs, this team also looked at the Agenda-setting Theory.                          




Diffusion of         Innovations