*** - Highly Relevant, ** - Moderately Relevant, * - Less Relevant, NR - Not Relevant
The articles are catogorized into following catogories:
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to describe the technical foundations of different wireless technologies. It first provides the basics of certain wireless services and considers the technology on which the services depend. Then, it describes three major wireless technologies involved: the Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), the Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), and the Frequency Division Multiplex Access (FDMA). Due to the fact that many TDMA manufacturers have now obtained CDMA licenses, there is cross-fertilization within the whole wireless industry.
Subjects:FDMA; TDMA; CDMA; Wireless Loop Systems-CT-2; Outdoor Wireless Loop; Criteria for the Selection of Wireless Loop Systems; Wireless Loop Standards; Cellular Systems; Variation of PCS; Paging; Wireless LANS
Abstract:This article provides definitions of electromagnetic terms such as electromagnetic emissions or electromagnetic radiation, electromagnetic susceptibility, electromagnetic compatibility, and so on. It also includes a proposal for an experiment to identify continuous signals and sources of signals within the hospital environment as well as to perform a signal analysis on the data collected.
Subjects:Background; Hypothesis; Predictions; Experiment; Method; Observations
Abstract: This report discusses a study performed to collect data for radiated electromagnetic interference and conducted electromagnetic interference in different hospital environments in two major hospitals. The radiated measurements were taken using a Model 2712 spectrum analyzer, calibrated electromagnetic interference antenna, and a Model 3004 RF field intensity meter. The conducted measurements were taken using a single-phase power disturbance analyzer. The results showed that the main sources of radiated electromagnetic interference were intentional radiators such as telemetry and paging devices, handheld radios, and wireless phones. The study also found the electrosurgical units (ESUs) to be a main source of radiated electromagnetic interference. However, low levels of electromagnetic interference was found to be emitted from lasers, x-rays, and other high-energy equipment. There was also minimal conducted electromagnetic interference resulting from power disturbances.
Subjects: The Elements of EMI; Test Methods; Test Results; Discussion
Note: Also in Chapter 3
Abstract: The subject of electromagnetic interference in the hospital environment has gained prominence due to the increased usage of wireless phones. Besides a listing of EMI sources in the medical environment, this paper also provides a multi-step process to device strategies which will significantly reduce the risk of the occurrence of adverse events due to EMI. It focuses on the immediate issues of EMI in the health care environment.
Subjects: EMI Discussion
Note: Also in Chapter 4
Abstract: This article discusses electrostatic discharge (ESD) as a potential source of electromagnetic interference. It proposes that the rate of discharge during grounding be controlled in order to minimize the impact of an ESD event. The author includes examples of ESD/EMI problems that have been reported by the Center for Devices and Radiological Health. He also suggests some general solutions to prevent electromagnetic interference.
Subjects: Case Examples; Theoretical Energy Analysis; Some Solutions
Abstract: This report summarizes electromagnetic problems that occur in medical devices. It then discusses ECRIs interpretation of the importance of these problems. Finally, some general recommendations in the areas of patient safety are made.
Subjects: ECRIs Perspectives Between 1992 to 1993; ECRIs Perspective Between 1993 and mid-1995; Information in the Accumulated Reports; Report to the U.S. FDA; Interpretation and Use of Reported Data; Need for Wireless RF Communication; Toward Management of Risks; Recommendations
Abstract: There have been many cases reported concerning medical devices malfunction due to electromagnetic interference (EMI). Death and serious injuries have occurred as a result of performance degradation of such devices. Due to the increasingly occurrence of EMI, there is a need for increased awareness among users, manufacturers, and standard organizations on medical device electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). This paper discusses in detailed the sources of EMI, EMC problems prevention, and the type of medical devices in which EMI problems were reported.
Subjects: Introduction; Reasons For Increased CDRH Emphasis On EMC; Medical Device EMC Problem Reporting; Case Studies; Prevention of Medical Device EMC Problems; Conclusions
Abstract: Reports of medical devices malfunction caused by radiofrequency interference (RFI) have increased since the early 1990s. This is mainly due to the increasing use of electronic medical device with inadequate protection against RFI as well as the increasing number of RF sources in the environment. Medical device failures due to RFI may cause serious injuries and death. This paper focuses on the factors affecting the severity of RFI, RF immunity of medical devices, and the RFI prevention so that necessary steps can be taken to cope with such problems.
Subjects: Introduction; Reports of Problem Encountered; Factors That Affect The Occurrence Of RFI; Standards For RF Immunity Of Medical Devices; Failure Prevention And RFI Avoidance; Recommendations; Conclusions
Abstract:This paper discusses some of the research on risk estimation of electromagnetic interference malfunction of medical devices done by the McGill University Biomedical Engineering Group of Electromagnetic Compatibility. The risk for electromagnetic interference malfunction is summarized in a simple equation. A few solutions to minimize the risk of medical device electromagnetic interference malfunctions are also proposed.
Subjects: What is the Risk of EMI Malfunction?; Potential Sources of EMI; Which Sources Have the Greatest EMI Potential?; Measurement of the Electromagnetic Environment of Hospitals: Fixed and Portable Sources; Medical Device Immunity to EMI; Minimizing the Risk of EMI Malfunctions; Source - Device Separation Distance; Current and Future EMI Potential Risk; EMI Risk Minimization: The Next 5 to 10 Years and the Next 10 to 20 Years
Note: Also in Chapter 3 and Chapter 4
Abstract: Many medical devices has significant interference problems due to radiofrequency interference (RFI) in the non clinical environment. This paper discusses the measurement performed by the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) to determine the field strengths of common RF sources in this area. The study showed that the field strength of distant transmitters, user handheld transceivers, and local transmitters exceeded the 3V/m RFI immunity level specified in the IEC 601-1-2 international medical device electromagnetic compatibility standard.
Subjects: Introduction; Methods; Results; Conclusions
Abstract: This paper describes the effects of electromagnetic interference on medical devices. It discusses the various sources of electromagnetic interference such as power lines, radio stations, cellular phones and walkie-talkies, while presenting examples of hospital policies on the usage of transmitting devices. It also provides excerpts of different standards dealing with electromagnetic interference and electromagnetic compatibility by radio frequency fields and medical devices.
Subjects: Sources of Electromagnetic Interference; Susceptible Devices; Portable Telecommunication Devices; Hospital Policies; Electromagnetic Compatibility; National and International Standards
Abstract: EMC has become a key focus area in the design of electronic equipment of late. Injury claims based on electromagnetic radiation (EMR) are common in courts today. Although there is currently no scientific evidence to prove the link between EMR or EMI and physical injury, lawyers are examining all the possibilities of litigation claims. EMI litigation could definitely be a major issue in the U.S. in the years to come.
Subjects: Shifting Legal Standard; Summary Judgment Denied