CHAPTER 1 : AN INTRODUCTION TO EMC

Administrator
Medical
Professional
Biomedical-
Engineering
Personnel
Hospital
Personnel
Title of Abstract
*
- NR -
- NR -
***
EMI Gains Attention As Focus Of Liability law
***
***
***
***
Radiofrequency Interference With Medical Devices
COMAR Reports
- NR -
- NR -
**
- NR -
IC Susceptibility From ESD-Induced EMI
Ryne C. Allen
- NR -
- NR -
***
- NR -
Sources Of Radiofrequency Interference For Medical Devices In The Non Clinical Environment
Howard Bassen, Paul Ruggera, Jon Casamento, and Donald Witters
***
*
***
*
Electromagnetic Interference: A Hospital Field Experiment
John Blair
***
*
***
*
An Overview of Wireless Communications Systems
Roohollah Hajbandeh
*
*
***
*
Electromagnetic Interference In The Hospital Environment
William D. Kimmel and Daryl D. Gerke
**
**
- NR -
**
Medical Device Malfunction Caused By Electromagnetic Interference: The ECRI Perspective
G. Guy Knickerbocker and Alan S. Barbell
***
***
***
***
Sources and Victims: The Potential Magnitude Of The Electromagnetic Interference Problem
Bernard Segal
***
***
***
***
Performance Degradation Of Electronic Medical Devices Due to Electromagnetic Interference
Jeffrey L. Silberberg
*
***
*
**
Electromagnetic Interference: Strategies For Management In The Clinical Environment
John M. Smith, fred W. Unger, and Lisa Bolton
***
*
- NR -
*
Walkie-Talkies And Cellular Telephones: The hazards Of Electromagnetic Interference In Hospitals
Kok-Swang Tan and Irwin Hinberg

*** - Highly Relevant, ** - Moderately Relevant, * - Less Relevant, NR - Not Relevant

 

The articles are catogorized into following catogories:

An Introduction to Wireless Communications Systems
Sources of Electromagnetic Interference
Electromagnetic Interference and Law


Introduction to Wireless Communication Systems

AN OVERVIEW OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS
Roohollah Hajbandeh
Annual Review of Communications
1997 p 907 - 911 Full Version Of Article Not Available - Permission Pending.

Abstract: The objective of this paper is to describe the technical foundations of different wireless technologies. It first provides the basics of certain wireless services and considers the technology on which the services depend. Then, it describes three major wireless technologies involved: the Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), the Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), and the Frequency Division Multiplex Access (FDMA). Due to the fact that many TDMA manufacturers have now obtained CDMA licenses, there is cross-fertilization within the whole wireless industry.

Subjects:FDMA; TDMA; CDMA; Wireless Loop Systems-CT-2; Outdoor Wireless Loop; Criteria for the Selection of Wireless Loop Systems; Wireless Loop Standards; Cellular Systems; Variation of PCS; Paging; Wireless LANS


GO BACK TO TOP 


ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE: A HOSPITAL FIELD EXPERIMENT
John Blair
Clinical Engineering
July 1995
p 1 - 9
Full Version Of Article Not Available - Permission Pending.

Abstract:This article provides definitions of electromagnetic terms such as electromagnetic emissions or electromagnetic radiation, electromagnetic susceptibility, electromagnetic compatibility, and so on. It also includes a proposal for an experiment to identify continuous signals and sources of signals within the hospital environment as well as to perform a signal analysis on the data collected.

Subjects:Background; Hypothesis; Predictions; Experiment; Method; Observations


GO BACK TO TOP 

Sources of Electromagnetic Interference 


ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE IN THE HOSPITAL ENVIRONMENT
William D. Kimmel and Daryl D. Gerke
Medical Device and Diagnostic Industry
May 1995
p 97 - 101
Full Version Of Article Reprinted With Permission From Medical Device and Diagnostic Industry. Copyright © 1995 Canon Communications LLC. 

Abstract: This report discusses a study performed to collect data for radiated electromagnetic interference and conducted electromagnetic interference in different hospital environments in two major hospitals. The radiated measurements were taken using a Model 2712 spectrum analyzer, calibrated electromagnetic interference antenna, and a Model 3004 RF field intensity meter. The conducted measurements were taken using a single-phase power disturbance analyzer. The results showed that the main sources of radiated electromagnetic interference were intentional radiators such as telemetry and paging devices, handheld radios, and wireless phones. The study also found the electrosurgical units (ESUs) to be a main source of radiated electromagnetic interference. However, low levels of electromagnetic interference was found to be emitted from lasers, x-rays, and other high-energy equipment. There was also minimal conducted electromagnetic interference resulting from power disturbances.

Subjects: The Elements of EMI; Test Methods; Test Results; Discussion

Note: Also in Chapter 3


GO BACK TO TOP 


ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE: STRATEGIES FOR MANAGEMENT IN THE CLINICAL ENVIRONMENT
John M. Smith, Fred W. Unger, and Lisa Bolton
EMBC95 Paper
10.2.1.9
Full Version Of Article Not Available - Permission Pending. 

Abstract: The subject of electromagnetic interference in the hospital environment has gained prominence due to the increased usage of wireless phones. Besides a listing of EMI sources in the medical environment, this paper also provides a multi-step process to device strategies which will significantly reduce the risk of the occurrence of adverse events due to EMI. It focuses on the immediate issues of EMI in the health care environment.

Subjects: EMI Discussion

Note: Also in Chapter 4


GO BACK TO TOP 


IC SUSCEPTIBILITY FROM ESD-INDUCED EMI
Ryne C. Allen
EE-Evaluation Engineering
v 37 n 5 May 1998
p 116 - 121
Full Version Of Article Reprinted With Permission From EE - Evaluation Engineering. Copyright © 1998 Nelson Publishing, Inc. 

Abstract: This article discusses electrostatic discharge (ESD) as a potential source of electromagnetic interference. It proposes that the rate of discharge during grounding be controlled in order to minimize the impact of an ESD event. The author includes examples of ESD/EMI problems that have been reported by the Center for Devices and Radiological Health. He also suggests some general solutions to prevent electromagnetic interference.

Subjects: Case Examples; Theoretical Energy Analysis; Some Solutions

Note: Also in Chapter 4


GO BACK TO TOP 


MEDICAL DEVICE MALFUNCTION CAUSED BY ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE: THE ECRI PERSPECTIVE
G.Guy Knickerbocker and Alan S. Barbell
Proceedings of a Workshop on Electromagnetics, Health Care and Health
1995
p 24 - 28
Full Version Of Article Reprinted With Permission From Proceedings of a Workshop on Electromagnetics, Healthcare and Health. Copyright © 1995 IEEE. 

Abstract: This report summarizes electromagnetic problems that occur in medical devices. It then discusses ECRIs interpretation of the importance of these problems. Finally, some general recommendations in the areas of patient safety are made.

Subjects: ECRIs Perspectives Between 1992 to 1993; ECRIs Perspective Between 1993 and mid-1995; Information in the Accumulated Reports; Report to the U.S. FDA; Interpretation and Use of Reported Data; Need for Wireless RF Communication; Toward Management of Risks; Recommendations

Note: Also in Chapter 4


GO BACK TO TOP 


PERFORMANCE DEGRADATION OF ELECTRONIC MEDICAL DEVICES DUE TO ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE Jeffrey L. Silberberg Compliance Engineering Fall 1993 p 1 - 8 Full Version Of Article Reprinted With Permission From Compliance Engineering. Copyright © 1993 Compliance Engineering. 

Abstract: There have been many cases reported concerning medical devices malfunction due to electromagnetic interference (EMI). Death and serious injuries have occurred as a result of performance degradation of such devices. Due to the increasingly occurrence of EMI, there is a need for increased awareness among users, manufacturers, and standard organizations on medical device electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). This paper discusses in detailed the sources of EMI, EMC problems prevention, and the type of medical devices in which EMI problems were reported.

Subjects: Introduction; Reasons For Increased CDRH Emphasis On EMC; Medical Device EMC Problem Reporting; Case Studies; Prevention of Medical Device EMC Problems; Conclusions


GO BACK TO TOP 


RADIOFREQUENCY INTERFERENCE WITH MEDICAL DEVICES
COMAR Reports
IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology
May/June 1998
p 111-114
Full Version Of Article Reprinted With Permission From IEEE. Copyright © 1998 IEEE. 

Abstract: Reports of medical devices malfunction caused by radiofrequency interference (RFI) have increased since the early 1990s. This is mainly due to the increasing use of electronic medical device with inadequate protection against RFI as well as the increasing number of RF sources in the environment. Medical device failures due to RFI may cause serious injuries and death. This paper focuses on the factors affecting the severity of RFI, RF immunity of medical devices, and the RFI prevention so that necessary steps can be taken to cope with such problems.

Subjects: Introduction; Reports of Problem Encountered; Factors That Affect The Occurrence Of RFI; Standards For RF Immunity Of Medical Devices; Failure Prevention And RFI Avoidance; Recommendations; Conclusions


GO BACK TO TOP 


SOURCES AND VICTIMS: THE POTENTIAL MAGNITUDE OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE PROBLEM
Bernard Segal
Electromagnetic Compatibility for Medical Devices: Issues and Solutions
1996
p 24 - 39
Full Version Of Article Reprinted With Permission From Dr. Bernard Segal and AAMI. 

Abstract:This paper discusses some of the research on risk estimation of electromagnetic interference malfunction of medical devices done by the McGill University Biomedical Engineering Group of Electromagnetic Compatibility. The risk for electromagnetic interference malfunction is summarized in a simple equation. A few solutions to minimize the risk of medical device electromagnetic interference malfunctions are also proposed.

Subjects: What is the Risk of EMI Malfunction?; Potential Sources of EMI; Which Sources Have the Greatest EMI Potential?; Measurement of the Electromagnetic Environment of Hospitals: Fixed and Portable Sources; Medical Device Immunity to EMI; Minimizing the Risk of EMI Malfunctions; Source - Device Separation Distance; Current and Future EMI Potential Risk; EMI Risk Minimization: The Next 5 to 10 Years and the Next 10 to 20 Years

Note: Also in Chapter 3 and Chapter 4


GO BACK TO TOP 


SOURCES OF RADIOFREQUENCY INTERFERENCE FOR MEDICAL DEVICES IN THE NON CLINICAL ENVIRONMENT Howard Bassen, Paul Ruggera, Jon Casamento, and Donald Witters
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
1994
p 896 - 897
Full Version Of Article Reprinted With Permission From IEEE. Copyright © 1994 IEEE. 

Abstract: Many medical devices has significant interference problems due to radiofrequency interference (RFI) in the non clinical environment. This paper discusses the measurement performed by the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) to determine the field strengths of common RF sources in this area. The study showed that the field strength of distant transmitters, user handheld transceivers, and local transmitters exceeded the 3V/m RFI immunity level specified in the IEC 601-1-2 international medical device electromagnetic compatibility standard.

Subjects: Introduction; Methods; Results; Conclusions


GO BACK TO TOP 


WALKIE-TALKIES AND CELLULAR TELEPHONES: THE HAZARDS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE IN HOSPITALS
Kok-Swang Tan and Irwin Hinberg
Leadership
v 3 n 3
p 11 - 15
Full Version Of Article Not Available - Permission Pending. 

Abstract: This paper describes the effects of electromagnetic interference on medical devices. It discusses the various sources of electromagnetic interference such as power lines, radio stations, cellular phones and walkie-talkies, while presenting examples of hospital policies on the usage of transmitting devices. It also provides excerpts of different standards dealing with electromagnetic interference and electromagnetic compatibility by radio frequency fields and medical devices.

Subjects: Sources of Electromagnetic Interference; Susceptible Devices; Portable Telecommunication Devices; Hospital Policies; Electromagnetic Compatibility; National and International Standards

Note: Also in Chapter 3 and Chapter 4


GO BACK TO TOP 

Electromagnetic Interference and the Law 


EMI GAINS ATTENTION AS FOCUS OF LIABILITY LAW
Modern Plastics 
v 75 n 6 June 1998 
p 31 - 32 
Full Version Of Article Not Available - Permission Pending. 

Abstract: EMC has become a key focus area in the design of electronic equipment of late. Injury claims based on electromagnetic radiation (EMR) are common in courts today. Although there is currently no scientific evidence to prove the link between EMR or EMI and physical injury, lawyers are examining all the possibilities of litigation claims. EMI litigation could definitely be a major issue in the U.S. in the years to come.

Subjects: Shifting Legal Standard; Summary Judgment Denied


GO BACK TO TOP 

 

   
Copyright © 2010 The Center for Study of Wireless Electromagnetic Compatibility, University of Oklahoma. All Rights Reserved.