“A portrait! What could be more simple and more complex, more obvious and more profound.” – Charles Baudelaire, 1859
Philadelphian Robert Cornelius produced the first photographic portrait in 1839. Using the daguerreotype process, which required a lengthy exposure, Cornelius remained motionless for more than a minute before his self-portrait was complete. Since that time, photography has supplanted painting and sculpture as the favored medium for portraiture. For much of the nineteenth century, portraiture remained the province of professional studio photographers but, in 1900, Kodak popularized the medium with its inexpensive and relatively simple Brownie camera. The Brownie became an instant sensation and led to widespread use by amateurs, a phenomenon comparable to the contemporary use of smartphone cameras, and snapshots of family and friends became an obvious application.