Honors Courses Fall 2014

Lower Division

Course

Information

ACCT 2113-003

Title: "Fundamental Financial Accounting"
Instructor: Wayne Thomas
Day/Time: MW 12:00-1:15
Building/Room: MFPH 3020

BIOL 1114-099

Title: "Introductory Zoology"
Instructor: James Thompson
Day/Time: RF 9:00-9:54
Co-Req Day/Time: RF 9:00-9:54
Building/Room: RH A 167

CHEM 1425-010

Title: "Gen. Chem for Majors"
Instructor: Charles Rice
Day/Time: MWF 8:30-9:20
Co-Req Day/Time: MW 2:30-5:20
Building/Room: PHSC 416

COMM 1113-003

Title: "Principles of Comm."
Instructor: Mathryn Lookadoo
Day/Time: TR 3:00-4:15
Building/Room: BURT 119

COMM 2613-001

Title: "Public Speaking"
Instructor: Carrisa Hoelscher
Day/Time: MWF 1:30-2:20
Building/Room: BURT 119

DRAM 1713-020

Title: "Understanding Theatre"
Instructor: Alissa Millar
Day/Time: MWF 1:30-2:45
Building/Room: GLCH 123

ECON 1113-001

Title: "Principles of Economics - Macro"
Instructor: William Clark
Day/Time: MW 11:30-12:45
Building/Room: DAH 200

ECON 1123-001

Title: "Principles of Economics - Micro"
Instructor: Alexander Holmes
Day/Time: MW 1:30-2:45
Building/Room: CCD1 338

ENGL 1113-004

Title: "Principles of English Comp"
Instructor: Elizabeth Smith
Day/Time: MWF 11:30-12:20
Building/Room: GIH 240

ENGR 1411-002

Title: "Freshman Engr. Experience"
Instructor: Kimberly Wolfinbarger
Day/Time: T 12:30-2:20
Building/Room: FH 300

ENGR 1411-004

Title: "Freshman Engr. Experience"
Instructor: Hjalti Sigmarsson
Day/Time: M 11:30-1:20
Building/Room: DEH 130

HIST

1493-001

Title: "US 1865 to Present"
Instructor: R. Warren Metcalf
Day/Time: TR 10:30-11:45
Building/Room: TBA

HON

2511-001

Title: "Community Citizen"
Instructor: Carolyn Morgan (cmorgan@ou.edu)
Day/Time: W 12:30-1:20
Building/Room: CCD5 182

Description: The goal of Community Citizen is to address community issues and needs in the context of an academic course. In this one-hour, letter-graded credit class, students will participate in and analyze volunteer experiences at organizations of their choice. Class readings, discussions, and reflection will lead to a more sophisticated view of community outreach and of connections between academic, career, community, and personal interests.

HON

2970-002

Title: "Sex & Love In Africa"
Instructor: Andreana Prichard
Day/Time: TR 9:00-10:15
Building/Room: CCD1 214

Description: This class will explore Africans’ ideas about sex (broadly defined as biological sex, gender, and as sexual acts) and related ideas about love (as it manifests in a wide range of hetero- and homosexual relationships) as they changed over time and across the continent. We will look at many of these ideals and institutions in the pre-colonial period, study the influence of Christianity, Islam, and Western culture more broadly on these dynamics, and explore the debates that inevitably arose in local communities about the ensuing changes. In particular, we will explore the continuities and changes in Africans’ ideas about sex, gender, and love from circa the 14th century to the present through a series of case studies, including: “female kings”, “male daughters” and “female husbands” in Nigeria; jin bandaa, or male homosexual transvestites with a respected and essential link to the spiritual world; competing definitions of masculinity among Maasai warriors; controversies over the supposed connections between urbanization, education, and women’s promiscuity and related debates over whether “schooling makes girls crazy”; landladies as prostitutes in colonial Nairobi; debates in Uganda about the “African-ness” of homosexuality; polygamous marriages, concubinage, and female-initiated divorce among Muslims along the Swahili Coast; and various iterations of “dandies”, “modern girls”, and “sugar daddies” across the continent.

 

This course fulfills a non-Western general education credit.

HON

2970-003

Title: "Globalizing Africa"
Instructor: Daniel Mains
Day/Time: TR 9:00-10:15
Building/Room: CCD5 182

Description: This course explores the relationship between economic and cultural processes associated with globalization and sub-Saharan Africa. In order to better understand the nature of globalization and its implications for inequality and day-to-day life, we will examine case studies dealing with topics like the marketing of soap in colonial southern Africa, conflicts over the extraction of oil in Nigeria, and undocumented West African migrants living in New York City. The course begins by briefly examining coffee and Ethiopia as an example of globalization in Africa. We then investigate colonialism in Africa. We will explore similarities and differences between colonialism and contemporary globalization, especially in relation to issues of exploitation and the extraction of resources from Africa. This will be followed by a series of readings related to consumption and conceptions of modernity. We will examine the movement of Indian movies, second hand clothes, and other international commodities into Africa in order to understand how identity is constructed within a context of globalization. The final section examines global movements of people. This section gives special attention to the case of refugees from South Sudan living in the United States.

 

This course fulfills a non-Western general education credit.

HON

2973-001

Title: "Religion and State"
Instructor: Marie Dallam
Day/Time: MWF 9:30-10:15
Building/Room: CCD5 180

Description: This course considers religion in conjunction with aspects of American statehood, broadly conceived, and will emphasize the myriad nuances of the religion clauses of the First Amendment. How have Americans understood their identity as citizens in relation to their religious identity? What have they believed about how issues of national concern should reflect particular religious ideals? What does “freedom of religion” really mean, practically and legally, historically and today? In what ways does the First Amendment shape the answers to these questions? With these questions in mind, we will explore topics including:

 

Who we are as a nation: Puritan theocratic intentions; the Founding Fathers and the documents they authored; the religious lives of American presidents; conflicts of citizenship rights and religious belief; religious ideals in wartime.

 

How we think about American behavior: first amendment cases on issues such as religion in public schools, “illegal” religious ceremonies, the public display of religious symbols, religious rights in the workplace, personal religious identity, censorship, and many others.

 

No prior knowledge of religious history or First Amendment issues is necessary; the course is geared toward beginners in these areas.

HON 2973-002

Title: "American Social Thought"
Instructor: Benjamin Alpers
Day/Time: TR 12:00-1:15
Building/Room: CCD1 214

Description: Stretching chronologically from the seventeenth century to the contemporary United States, this introductory honors course will touch upon a wide variety of big questions that Americans have grappled with throughout our history: What is the good life? What is the good society? How do we know what we know? Underneath all of these concerns is a more local question: What should America be? We will delve into these questions by exploring the ways in which American writers and thinkers have addressed them over the last four centuries. Among the thinkers encountered will be: John Winthrop, Anne Hutchinson, Roger Williams, James Madison, Thomas Jefferson, Charles Grandison Finney, Sarah Grimké, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Margaret Fuller, George Fitzhugh, Frederick Douglass, Abraham Lincoln, Frederick Jackson Turner, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, William James, John Dewey, Sidney Hook, Margaret Mead, James Baldwin, Hannah Arendt, Milton Friedman, Martin Luther King, Jr., Betty Friedan, Noam Chomsky, and Samuel Huntington.

HON 2973-003

Title: "American Literary Cultures"
Instructor: Julia Ehrhardt
Day/Time: MW 1:30-2:45
Building/Room: CCD5 182

Description: An introduction to the interdisciplinary college-level study of American literature (reading, analyzing, and writing about literary texts) this course focuses on a collection of works that exemplify a particular culture vital to American literary history. After a short overview of canonical American texts, the class will investigate a variety of writings no less important to our literary heritage.

HON 2973-004

Title: "Moby Dick In Context"
Instructor: David Long
Day/Time: TR 1:30-2:45
Building/Room: CCD1 214

Description: Drawing upon Genesis to mark his decision to go on a “whaling voyage,” a roving narrator who calls himself Ishmael gives a preview of the magnificent sea adventure that lies ahead: “. . . the great flood-gates of the wonder-world swung open, and in the wild conceits that swayed me to my purpose, two and two there floated into my inmost soul, endless processions of the whale, and, midmost of them all, one grand hooded phantom, like a snow hill in the air.” The soaring rhetoric of this passage ushers us into the world of Herman Melville’s Moby-Dick, with its many classical sources, its cavalcade of “wild conceits,” its intensely Romantic self-consciousness, its ultimate and unavoidable confrontation with the White Whale, and its immersion in the American whaling profession itself.

Since its publication in 1851, the “great flood-gates” of this epic tale have opened even wider for readers of the 20th century (and after) than they did for readers of the 19th century, partly because it was undervalued by most of Melville’s contemporaries, and partly because it anticipated much of the modernist sensibility that came to the fore only later, after his death in 1891. This course will attend closely not only to the text of Moby-Dick but to a variety of contexts: the political atmosphere of revolution and reform in which it was written; the literary sources that informed its genesis, including Hawthorne, Shakespeare, and the Bible; the life and career of Melville himself (1819-1891), with a selective sampling of Melville’s other fiction; the critical and popular reception of the book in the 20th century, including the relevance of Captain Ahab’s mad revenge quest to both the Cold War and global wars of aggression; some philosophy and some marine biology. Course work will include films, poems, and a graphic novel; a Moby-Dick class journal; the study of a Melville-inspired modernist novel by William Faulkner or Cormac McCarthy (or the equivalent—see options below); and a brief inquiry into the fate of the Save the Whales movement. This approach will allow us to address questions such as these:

What conditioned Melville’s development as a writer, up to and including the creation of Moby-Dick, and what sort of anti-climax followed the novel’s publication? 

What is the cast of Melville’s religious doubt in this book?

What are the tragic dimensions of Melville’s vision of life? How did the deepest, darkest truths of Moby-Dick echo or anticipate Shakespeare, Emerson, Nietzsche, and Freud?

Does the novel reveal the savagery of man or the savagery of men? To what kinds of feminist interpretation is the phallocentric myth-making of Moby-Dick susceptible?

How and why did its political symbolism come to light in the 20th century?

How has this text been re-interpreted in word and image? Wherein lies its enduring popular appeal? Its perennial relevance?

HON 2973-005

Title: "Intergenerational Politics"
Instructor: David Ray
Day/Time: TR 9:00-10:15
Building/Room: CCD5 182

Description: This course will consider three generations of Americans, defined roughly as those who would normally graduate from college in 
1946-1951, 1966-1971, and 2015-2018. The intent is to focus on the generation that fought World War II and experienced the Great Depression as children and young teenagers (most recently hailed as "the Greatest Generation"), the generation that was college-age in the "Sixties" (this is a portion of the generation generally regarded as “Baby Boomers”), and the current generation of college students. The course will focus on two broad topics: 


(1) What was the historical situation of the United States at the time each of these generations reached adulthood, and how was that situation perceived and analyzed by young adults at those times?

(2) What does that first topic tell us, if anything, about the prospects for bitter and intense political conflict along generational lines as the "baby boom" generation reaches retirement (which began in approximately 2010) ? Such a "generational war" is more and more frequently being predicted in works such as Kotlikoff and Burns, THE COMING GENERATIONAL STORM: WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT AMERIC'S ECONOMIC FUTURE (MIT Press, 2004).

 

Reading List

Tom Brokaw, THE GREATEST GENERATION (Delta, paperback, 2001)

 

Excerpts from James Miller, DEMOCRACY IS IN THE STREETS: FROM PORT HURON TO THE SIEGE OF CHICAGO (Harvard University Press, paperback edition, 1994) and Tom Brokaw, BOOM! TALKING ABOUT THE SIXTIES: WHAT HAPPENED, HOW IT SHAPED TODAY, LESSONS FOR TOMORROW (Random House, 2007)

 

Arthur Levine and Diane Dean, GENERATION ON A TIGHTROPE: A PORTRAIT OF TODAY'S COLLEGE STUDENT (Josey-Bass, 2012)

HON 2973-006

Title: "Intergenerational Politics"
Instructor: David Ray
Day/Time: TR 10:30-11:45
Building/Room: CCD5 182

Description: See description for HON 2973-005

HON 2973-008

Title: "New Literacies"
Instructor: Brian Johnson
Day/Time: TR 10:30-11:45
Building/Room: CCD1 201

Description: Throughout our brief history as a nation, our leaders have consistently been concerned about the apparent erosion of reading and writing skills. Nevertheless, one could argue that we are now more literate (perhaps hyper-literate) than ever before, due to the rise of information-disseminating vehicles such as SMS, email, Facebook, and Wikipedia. This course examines the roles technologies have historically played in the development of literacy skills, looks at recent communications technologies, and considers the implications of said technologies on the future of reading and writing.

HON 2973-010

Title: "New Literacies"
Instructor: Brian Johnson
Day/Time: TR 10:30-11:45
Building/Room: CCD1 201

Description: See description for HON 2973-006

HON 2973-011

Title: "What Is Science"
Instructor: Rich Hamerla
Day/Time: MWF 10:30-11:20
Building/Room: CCD5 180

Description: I want to change the way you think about science! Most of us accept science and scientific knowledge as a privileged form of understanding with powerful implications for the way we live. There’s absolutely nothing wrong with such a view, BUT I want to enable you to think more critically, or more analytically, about the creation of scientific knowledge, the operation of scientific institutions, and the culture of science in general. To do this we will read a number of books and articles that examine the nature of the scientific enterprise locally, nationally, and globally over time. This literature focuses on science as an evolving and contingent body of knowledge, as a dynamic and powerful way to explore the world, as a professional community, as a culture with its own idiosyncratic conventions, and as a contested source and object of political power.

HON 2973-013 Title: "Generational Politics"
Instructor: David Ray
Day/Time: TR 1:30-2:45
Building/Room: CCD5 182
HON 2973-014 Title: "Mark Twain's America 1835-1910"
Instructor: David Levy
Day/Time: MW 10:30-11:45
Building/Room: CCD5 182

LAT 1315-001

Title: "Intensive Intro to Latin"
Instructor: Peggy Chambers
Day/Time: TR 9:00-10:15
Building/Room: KH 140

MATH 1914-030

Title: "Diff & Integral Calc I"
Instructor: John Albert
Day/Time: F 12:30-1:20
Co-Req Day/Time: F 1:30-2:20
Building/Room: PHSC 122

MATH 2433-001

Title: "Calc/Analyt Geom III"
Instructor: Leonard Rubin
Day/Time: TR 9:00-10:15
Building/Room: PHSC 809

MATH 2924-020

Title: "Diff/Integral Calc II"
Instructor: Romasz Przebinda
Day/Time: MWF 9:30-10:20
Co-Req Day/Time: MW 11:30-12:12
Building/Room: PHSC 119

MATH 2934-020

Title: "Diff & Int Calc III"
Instructor: Lucy Lifschitz
Day/Time: MW 1:30-2:45
Co-Req Day/Time: F 2:30-3:20
Building/Room: PHSC 344

METR 2011-002

Title: "Intro to Meteorology"
Instructor: Jerry Straka
Day/Time: TR 10:00-11:15
Co-Req Day/Time: R 11:30-1:20
Building/Room: MWC 5820

MUNM 1113-001

Title: "Understanding Music"
Instructor: Armand Ambrosini
Day/Time: MWF 8:30-9:20
Building/Room: CMC 101

MUTH 1511-001

Title: "Musical Structures I"
Instructor: Kennet Stephenson
Day/Time: TR 8:30-9:20
Building/Room: CMC 128

MUTH 1611-001

Title: "Aural Skills"
Instructor: Kenneth Stephenson
Day/Time: MWF 8:30-9:20
Building/Room: CMC 109

P SC 1113-001

Title: "American Federal Government"
Instructor: Shad Shatterthwaite
Day/Time: TR 9:00-10:15
Building/Room: EH 103

PHIL 1013-003

Title: "Intro to Philosophy"
Instructor: Hugh Benson
Day/Time: TR 12:00-1:15
Building/Room: DAHT 607

PHYS 1205-010

Title: "Intro to Physics I"
Instructor: Bruce Mason
Day/Time: MTWF 10:30-11:20
Co-Req Day/Time: R 1:30-4:20
Co-Req Day/Time: F 1:30-4:20
Building/Room: NH 251

PHYS 2524-020

Title: "General Physica-Engr/Sci"
Instructor: Eric Abraham
Day/Time: MWF 11:30-12:20
Co-Req Day/Time: MWF 11:30-12:20
Building/Room: NH 270

PSY 1113-004

Title: "Elements of Psy"
Instructor: Mauricio Carvallo
Day/Time: MW 5:00-6:15
Building/Room: BURT 201

SPAN 1115-003

Title: "Beginning Spanish"
Instructor: TBA
Day/Time: MTWRF 10:30-11:20
Building/Room: KH 137

SPAN 2113-002

Title: "Intermediate Spanish"
Instructor: TBA
Day/Time: MWF 10:30-11:20
Building/Room: DAH 107

Upper Division

Course

Information

CH E 3723-002

Title: "Num Meth Engr Comp"
Instructor: Edgar O'Rear
Day/Time: MWF 11:30-12:20
Building/Room: CEC 121

CHEM 3053-003

Title: "Organic Chem I: Bio"
Instructor: Anthony Burgett
Day/Time: MWF 1:30-2:20
Building/Room: PSCH 228

CL C 3163-900

Title: "Vision of Heaven and Hell"
Instructor: Ellen Greene
Day/Time: T 5:30-8:10
Building/Room: CARN 204

CL C 3613-001

Title: "Classic Infl. Mod. Lit."
Instructor: Sara Coodin
Day/Time: MWF 1:30-2:20
Building/Room: CARN 224

ECON 3133-001

Title: "Intermediate Macroeconomic Theory"
Instructor: William Clark
Day/Time: MWF 10:30-11:20
Building/Room: CCD1 338

ENT 3710-001

Title: "Careet Paths in ENT"
Instructor: Daniel Pullin
Day/Time: MW 1:30-2:24
Building/Room: MFPH 2030

GEOG 3273-001 Title: "Cultural Geographies of the Colonial Caribbean"
Instructor: Karl Offen
Day/Time: MWF 12:30-1:20
Building/Room: SEC 442
HSCI 3013-002 Title: "History of Science to the Age of Newton"
Instructor: Rienk Vermij
Day/Time: MWF 10:30-11:20
Building/Room: SEC M0204

MBIO 3813-002

Title: "Fund. Of Microbiology"
Instructor: David Nagle
Day/Time: MWF 8:30-9:20
Building/Room: GLCH 310

Colloquium

Course

Information

HON 3993-001

Title: "Film Noir"
Instructor: Benjamin Alpers
Day/Time: TR 3:00-4:15
Building/Room: CCD5 180

Description: In the 1940s and 1950s, Hollywood produced a series of films that told disturbing, psychologically complex stories unlike most mainstream American cinema. Although related to earlier crime and suspense films, such movies as Double Indemnity, Out of the Past, and Kiss Me Deadly, seemed to many to be somehow different: perhaps more critical, perhaps darker (literally and figuratively), perhaps more downbeat. These films seemed to many to be marked by certain common features: twisty plots, the character of the “femme fatale,” low-key lighting, urban settings. By the end of the 1940s, the French had given a name to them: film noir (literally “black film”). This course will view Hollywood film noir in a variety of contexts. We will explore the precursors of film noir, survey Hollywood’s noirs of the 1940s and 1950s, and finally examine the ways in which a variety of filmmakers adapted film noir for their own purposes in later decades.

 

Please note that the course has a required screening every Monday night at 7 pm. There will be a screening during the first week of classes.

HON 3993-002

Title: "Contemporary American Women Writers"
Instructor: Julia Ehrhardt
Day/Time: MW 3:00-4:15
Building/Room: CCD5 182

Description: This class is an in-depth investigation of women’s literature written in the United States from 1960 to the present, encompassing the genres of the novel, memoir, short story, drama, and poetry. In addition to traditional close readings and formal analysis, we proceed from an interdisciplinary perspective that highlights the historical, social, and cultural contexts from which each work emerges. To accomplish these goals, we will also study various examples of feminist literary criticism in order to ascertain the academic, political, and social impact that women’s writing has had and continues to make in American life. We will examine the literature we study as reflective of the social forces that construct women as a social group, as well as the commercial aspects of literary production.

HON 3993-003

Title: "American Religious Experience Through Biography"
Instructor: Marie Dallam
Day/Time: MW 1:30-2:45
Building/Room: CCD1 101

Description: How does the American cultural context affect the everyday religious lives of individuals? How is religious identity constructed in our intensely secular society? These are the central questions of The American Religious Experience through Biography.

 

This course will appeal to anyone who is interested in learning about American social history through an unconventional lens. We will read memoirs, biographies, and autobiographies as a way to learn about the religious lives of American individuals, including their doubts and struggles, their religious questions, and the ways their religion interacts dialectically with the larger cultural context. Some of the readings are written by/about notable religious leaders, while others are by average Americans. The books will allow us to consider the trajectory of religious history in the United States from the 1800s to the present, but with a focus on people rather than on institutions.

 

Because this is a colloquium, there will a heavy reading load as well as a substantial research paper. Participation in class discussion will also count for a large portion of the grade. There will be a cumulative final essay exam. All students will be required to have hard copies of books (not e-books).

 

This course counts for upper-level Gen Ed credit in Western Civilization.

 

Some of our titles will include:
• Growing Up Amish
• God’s Long Summer: Stories of Faith and Civil Rights
• Living Islam Out Loud: American Muslim Women Speak
• Aimee Semple McPherson and the Resurrection of Christian America

HON 3993-006

Title: "Literature and Medicine"
Instructor: Ronald Schleifer
Day/Time: TR 10:30-11:15
Building/Room: CCD5 180

Description: This course uses literary texts and popular descriptions of medical practice as well as other kinds of narrative to examine the relationship between the “art” and the “science” of medicine. Specifically, it examines the ways in which narrative modes of understanding might contribute to diagnostic practices and how the rigors of medical science can help to understand some of the ways literature works. The instructors hope that this course will attract a good mix of students working in the sciences and humanities. This course offers students the opportunity of studying with both a practicing doctor and experienced medical educator and a scholar of literature, language and the relation between science and literature.

HON 3993-008

Title: "Cultures & Capitalisms"
Instructor: Daniel Mains
Day/Time: TR 10:30-11:45
Building/Room: CCD5 182

Description: This course examines non-western approaches to exchange and economics in order to better understand capitalism and the various ways that it manifests itself across the globe. Rather than assuming that economic globalization has caused the spread of capitalism throughout the world, we examine how different cultural practices shape economic institutions to create distinct capitalisms. The course begins by examining gift exchange as it is practiced in Africa and Melanesia in order to rethink the assumption that humans are naturally rational maximizers. We then explore theoretical approaches to the origins of capitalism. The second half of the course examines case studies of varying economic and cultural practices within a variety of different global contexts. Individual cases examine the politics of fair trade coffee in Mexico and Ethiopia, the importance of culture for Wall Street investment bankers, and transactional sex in West Africa.

HON 3993-009

Title: "Modern African Lives"
Instructor: Andreana Prichard
Day/Time: TR 10:30-11:45
Building/Room: CCD5 182

Description: This class will use stories about individual Africans—some famous, some infamous, some not-so-well-known—to explore the history of modern Africa. From these stories we will learn about some of the major events of the recent African past, and about how these and smaller-scale, local, and more intimate events shaped Africans’ lives. We will also ask how the stories reflect or in some cases produced broader intellectual, political, or social trends relevant to African history. This class will use a variety of biographical and autobiographical forms—the traditional biography or autobiography, video documentaries, interviews, music, letters, diaries, memoirs, the graphic novel—to explore how others have written about Africans, the ways that Africans have chosen to write about their own lives, and the often-creative ways that they have found to tell their own stories. Taken together, these stories will weave a richly textured, nuanced, and often surprising history of modern Africa.

 

This course fulfills a non-Western general education credit.

HON 3993-010

Title: "Indigenous Films"
Instructor: Laurel Smith
Day/Time: TR 9:00-10:15
Building/Room: CCD1 201

HON 3993-011

Title: "Asia and Africa Before and During The Impact of Modernization"
Instructor: David Ray
Day/Time: TR 3:00-4:15
Building/Room: CCD5 182

Description: This course is an introduction to the political, social, and economic history of those societies in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East that are termed “Less Developed Countries” by the UN. These societies share this common historical experience: (a) for most of their existence, they have been so-called traditional societies which had surprisingly similar social structures and economies – distinctly pre-modern, unlike the US which has been a modernizing society from its origins; (b) as traditional societies, they encountered so-called development or modernization later than the industrialized societies of the West and Japan, and (c) the encounter was imposed upon them by external forces. The course attempts to describe that common historical experience in systematic terms. It will also note that the impact of modernization varied: some nations and regions were subject to direct colonial rule (India, Indochina, sub-Saharan Africa), while others attempted reforms in an effort to fend off the intrusion of industrialized states (China, Turkey, Iran).