The Fourth Annual
SIG IS Cognitive Research Workshop

Ph.D. STUDENT RESEARCH WORKSHOP

Sunday, December 12, 2004 (Pre-ICIS)
Washington, D.C. 2004

After the success of last year's Cognitive Research PhD Workshop,  we will continue to encourage participation from Ph.D. students who are interested in Cognitive Research.  Therefore, we will be offering a Ph.D. student research workshop as an integral part of the IS CoRE workshop.  To be considered for this workshop, Ph.D. students submit a research proposal of 2,500 words (please double space), which will be evaluated by the workshop committee for possible inclusion.  The proposal should have three distinct sessions of approximately equal space: (1) Theoretical Foundations; (2) Methods; and (3) Results. If the work is theoretical or if the work is in progress in does not have results yet, please only complete (1) and (2). The PhD workshop will follow an interactive paper presentation format. Students will sit at round tables with one or two more PhD students doing similar work. We will try to match students based on similarities in theoretical foundations or methods. Each round table will have an experienced faculty with experience in the theme presented at the table, who will act as a facilitator. All other faculty and students attending the conference will be asked to join one of the tables. Each student will give a short presentation. The facilitator will encourage Q&A and promote discussion and critiques to help students improve their work.

Table & Faculty Mentor Assignments

Abstracts

Table 1

Faculty Mentors: Gerardine DeSanctis (Duke), Deborah Armstrong (University of Arkansas ), Alberto Espinosa (American University)

Papers: core2004-phd3 The Impacts Of Information Technologies On Knowledge Sharing In Virtual Teams , Oliver Caya (McGill University ); core2004-phd7 Leveraging Online Education to Provide Online Learning , Jim Waters (Drexel University )

Table 2

Faculty Mentors: Glenn Browne ( Texas Tech University ), Stefano Grazioli ( University of Virginia ), Kishore Sengupta (Insead)

Papers: core2004-phd2 Task Complexity, Decisional Guidance and Decision Aid Reliance , Alison Parkes ( University of Melbourne ); core2004-phd5 An Experimental Investigation of Pseudo-Endowment and Auction Bidder Behavior , James Wolf ( Ohio State University )

Table 3

Faculty Mentors: Ray Henry ( Clemson University ), Terrie Shaft ( University of Oklahoma ), Gasson ( Drexel University )

Papers: core2004-phd1 Group Information-seeking in Risky, Time-constrained Situations: An Application to Emergency Response , Qing Gu (New Jersey Institute of Technology); core2004-phd4 An Inquiry Into the Nature of Organizational Transparency and its Relationship with Information Systems , Jean-Grégoire Bernard ( Queens University )

Table 4

Faculty Mentors: Fiona Nah ( University of Nebraska , Lincoln ), Andrea Houston ( Louisiana State University ), Dennis Galletta ( Temple University ),

Papers: core2004-phd6 The Perception of Flow Experience in Playing Computer Mediated Games , Johan Aderud ( Orebro University ); core2004-phd8: Mobile Technology Use in Unanticipated Emergency Environments: A Pilot Study , Michael Chuang ( University of Illinois , Urbana-Champaign)

Research Proposal Abstracts

  core2004-phd1: Group Information-seeking in Risky, Time-constrained Situations: An Application to Emergency Response

Qing Gu < qg3@njit.edu > New Jersey Institute of Technology

Groups in risky, time-constrained situations may be confronted with problems that cannot be solved by following predefined procedures. They must therefore engage in a collective search for relevant information, cooperating and collaborating as they move towards the deadline. Expertise and information technologies may help shape group information seeking and determine its effectiveness. This research develops and evaluates theory about the impact of expertise and decision support technologies on group information seeking processes. The theory is to be evaluated in the domain of emergency response, where both risk and time constraint are present, along with a pervasive need for decision making groups. Results of a pilot study investigating the impacts of expertise and decision support are presented. The preliminary results suggest that, at a group level, expert and novice groups are not significantly different in information-seeking behavior in emergencies. However, individual group members are different, and these differences are mainly attributable to the behaviors of the group leader.

core2004-phd2: Task Complexity, Decisional Guidance and Decision Aid Reliance

Alison Parkes < aparkes@unimelb.edu.au > University of Melbourne

One of the fundamental lines of enquiry in Decision Support Systems (DSS) relates to the effectiveness of these systems. Empirical results to date have been conflicting. An effective DSS is a balanced blend of both good design and user knowledge in the task domain. Maximising DSS effectiveness requires a balance between user domain knowledge and reliance on the expertise embedded within the DSS. Existing theories of technology usage explain physical usage of the system, however reliance is concerned with how DSS outputs can be used and integrated into user decision making. Existing research provides evidence that decision makers supported by a DSS make judgments that are more consistent and accurate than unaided decision makers, however prior research has frequently found that DSS users tend not to rely on the assistance provided. If reliance does not occur there appears to be little rationale at all for employing resources to create the DSS, and little likelihood that a business adopting such an aid would obtain any discernable benefits. Recent work in decision support suggests that being able to build on the strengths of experts is potentially more beneficial than using aids to support novices. This thesis will extend existing findings by examining the research question: What influences experts reliance on DSSs?”

core2004-phd3: The Impacts Of Information Technologies On Knowledge Sharing
In Virtual Teams

Oliver Caya < olivier.caya@mail.mcgill.ca > McGill University

During the last decade, virtual teams have received burgeoning interest in both academic and practice communities. Because they offer the opportunity to link the best resources of an organization irrespective of temporal and geographical constraints, virtual teams have the potential to redefine the way organizations can take advantage of their intellectual capital. But despite the anticipated benefits of such work configurations, empirical research indicates that members of virtual teams often fail to exchange efficiently their unique knowledge, and experience several communication problems that hinder the knowledge sharing process. This discrepancy between the promise of virtual teams and their actual benefits has serious impacts for research on distributed cognition, and urge us to understand why knowledge sharing is constrained in the virtual setting. To answer this issue, this research proposes a model of knowledge sharing in virtual teams. Building on research on social dilemma and transactive memory system, we conceptualize the knowledge sharing process as a communication dilemma, where knowledge seekers and providers are facing several barriers and incentives when trying to share knowledge in virtual teams. Then, we suggest how information technologies could affect theses barriers and incentives, and so facilitate the exchange of knowledge between virtual team members.

core2004-phd4: An Inquiry Into the Nature of Organizational Transparency and its Relationship with Information Systems

Jean-Grégoire Bernard < jbernard@business.queensu.ca > Queens University

There is much hype nowadays about the potential of information technologies to render organizations transparent. Surprisingly, very few systematic studies have been conducted to debunk this statement or to explore what organizational transparency actually means. I propose that organizational transparency can be best understood as the ongoing ability to make sense of the inner workings of an organization. Furthermore, our understanding of how individuals experience information technologies and of how their information outputs is used in work practices is limited (Weick, 1995). Information technologies inscribe a reality that could blind individuals and organizations from the necessary information for improvisation, reframing and adaptation. I believe that the design and the nature of information systems in use will affect and play a major role in this sensemaking process. It is also suggested that organizational transparency may lead to conflicts or collapses of sensemaking. Thus, with the ethnography of two health care organizations, this research proposal addresses the question “how does organizational transparency affect the ability of an organization to achieve result?”.

core2004-phd5: An Experimental Investigation of Pseudo-Endowment
and Auction Bidder Behavior

James Wolf < wolf.206@osu.edu > Ohio State University

While auctions are often touted as a source of bargains, there is a growing body of evidence that suggests buyers often overbid in both online and traditional auctions. Ariely and Simonson (2003) propose that auction overbidding may be the result of bidders' growing attachment to the item during the auction. They suggest that during the course of an auction, the current high bidder may begin to feel psychological ownership of the item, developing an attachment which produces a pseudo-endowment effect. We empirically examine this effect using 11,325 bids from 2182 completed eBay Motors' passenger vehicle auctions. The data suggests that online auction bidding is positively and significantly affected by a pseudo-endowment effect. Specifically, participants listed as an auction's high bidder for longer periods of time were more likely to rebid (p < 0.01) if their bid was superseded.

core2004-phd6: The Perception of Flow Experience in Playing Computer Mediated Games

Johan Aderud < johan.aderud@esi.oru.se > Orebro University

The central research question is: What is the perception of flow experience while playing computer mediated games (CMG)? A lot of research in the human-computer interaction field has been about users' experiences while interacting with information technology and over the past decade researchers have studied the causes and effects of enjoyment in interaction with information technology and computer usage and many studies are done with a work related or utilitarian focus. As more and more devices and applications are designed for entertainment purposes there is a need to study and measure enjoyment while interacting with information technology on these premises. The focus of my research will be investigating the experience of flow while playing computer mediated games (CMG) with a differentiation between the experiences caused by the task (playing the game) and the experiences caused by the artifact (console, PC or mobile phone). Flow as a construct gives a framework for modeling enjoyment, playfulness, engagement, user satisfaction, absorption and other related states of involvement within computer mediated environments (CMEs). If we can understand people's affective experiences in playing CMGs we can perhaps determine the factors needed in games, types of games, artifacts and even interfaces that gives enjoyment to interaction within CMEs. This would give us help or direction when it comes to altering our design of games or artifacts, so that they can be more contributive to flow. I will use the perspective of the Person-artifact-task (PAT) model as a framework for my operationalization of the flow construct.

core2004-phd7: Leveraging Online Education to Provide Online Learning

Jim Waters < jw65@drexel.edu > Drexel University

This document describes a proposed program of research designed to investigate some of the critical success factors in promoting effective (as opposed to efficient) online learning in the context of University level education. My particular interest is twofold, firstly to explore what strategies and approaches are most effective in promoting learning in online educational settings and secondly how can one best use discourse based learning to promote an effective community of inquiry[1] with positive learning outcomes.

core2004-phd8: Mobile Technology Use in Unanticipated Emergency Environments:
A Pilot Study

Michael Chuang < ychuang2@uiuc.edu > University of Illinois , Urbana-Champaign

Some emergencies simply go beyond possible anticipation or imagination, regarded as “unthinkable” or “impossible.” When they happen, existing procedures, processes, and protocols appear to not function, be inapplicable, or merely not used or followed. People tend to form groups, get involved in the situation, and use mobile technology to communicate with each other in order to solve the problems they perceive under the stress of the situation. Research suggests that people are prone to perceive “distorted information” during emergencies or crises. My research thus is developed in order to know how inaccurate information that a group receives impacts the group's decision-making performance. It builds a theoretical framework targeting the inaccurate information in unexplored, unanticipated incidents (defined as and short for “emergency” in my research). It addresses the following research questions: (1) How can we characterize emergency environments and mobile technologies to fully capture the uniqueness of emergency scenarios? (2) How can we identify and consolidate current perspectives and theories to construct a theoretical framework specifically for emergency environments? (3) How can my research build a model to predict and explain the performance of mobile technology use in emergency environments when incorporating the uniqueness of emergencies?

 

The unifying theme of these topics is the premise that understanding human cognition is a critical component to the successful design, implementation and use of information systems.

 

 
We look forward to meeting you, at the workshop!
 
See you in Washington , DC !

Dennis Galletta, Katz School of Business, University of Pittsburgh, galletta@katz.pitt.edu
J. Alberto Espinosa, Kogod School of Business, American University, alberto@american.edu
Kishore Sengupta, INSEAD, kishore.sengupta@insead.edu
Program Co-Chairs

Susan Gasson, College of Information Science & Technology, Drexel University, Susan.Gasson@cis.drexel.edu
Communications Co-Chair