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University of Oklahoma

Department of Biology

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Time-lapse movie showing 2 days of development. The animal pole is positioned toward the camera. Synchronous cleavages follow fertilization. Gastrulation can be seen as ingressing cells migrate along the inner wall of the blastocoel.  The movie concludes at the onset of neurulation.

This time-lapse movie of a gastrulating embryo shows the spreading of animal pole ectoderm as ingressing mesodermal cells crawl along the inner wall of the blastocoel toward the animal pole.

Timelapse movie illustrating elongation of the neural plate

Axial elongation
This time-lapse movie encompasses development from stage 18 (4days) through stage 24~25 (9 days). The embryo has been removed from its chorion and positioned on its side with the anterior end up and dorsal to the right.  As the anteroposterior axis elongates the head begins to extend towards the left side of the frame.  At the midpoint of the movie the embryo is at stage 21. Movement of the rostral end of the embryo begins at stage 23.

Branchial basket                          
This movie illustrates the branchial basket in a 1 month (stage 30) pro-ammocoete larva, imaged using induced fluorescence of the branchial basket cartilage following alcian blue staining as described in Martin et al., 2009.  The anterior end of the animal is positioned to the right. Initially shown as a transmitted image, the branchial basket is positioned beneath the notochord and contains attachment points on the ventral surface of the notochord (not shown; see Martin et al 2009).  An otic vesicle can be seen positioned adjacent to the notochord at the anterior end of the branchial basket. The movie transitions into a 3D reconstruction of the same anterior region with the branchial basket highlighted in green.  Segmental somite blocks are visible overlying the branchial basket. Finally, as the entire reconstructed pharynx rotates, the soft tissues are removed to illustrate only the cartilage of the branchial basket. The trabecular cartilages are visible as extensions at the rostral end (righthand) of the skeleton.  

First arch D-loop fusion

This movie illustrates a high resolution reconstruction of the 1st (rostralmost) cartilage bar at the point where the hypotrematic process has fused with the vertical cartilage bar.  Note the coinstack appearance of the cells within the cartilage bar, but chondrocytes within the hypotrematic process are less regular in their appearance.


Last DiI injection animation
This animation illustrates how DiI can be injected through the dorsal midline ectoderm to label a small population of emigrating neural crest cells (shown in green with labeled cells red).

Pharyngeal pouch formation
Animation Key: Green - Neural crest cells; Yellow - Endoderm; Red- Mesoderm; Blue- Ectoderm
This animation illustrates the process of pharyngeal pouch formation to separate neural crest and mesoderm into individual branchial arches. The animation illustrates a horizontal section through the presumptive pharynx. Neural crest cells, shown in green, have already migrated as a continuous sheet into the presumptive pharyngeal region prior to formation of the branchial arches. Neural crest cells become partitioned by the fusion of pharyngeal endoderm with ectoderm resulting in a series of branchial arches that contain chondrogenic neural crest and mesoderm that gives rise to branchial muscles.

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  Page Author: T.R. Fore - Last Modified: 01 June 2010