ISSN 1188-603X

No. 301 February 5, 2003 Victoria, B.C.
Dr. A. Ceska, P.O.Box 8546, Victoria, B.C. Canada V8W 3S2


Botany BC 2003 will take place Friday July 4-6 in the beautiful Bella Coola valley ( Please mark these dates in your calendar and make travel and accommodation reservations ASAP. For further information and suggestions on travel and accommodation, please check the Botany BC Website (

There is no registration form yet, as we're working on field trip details, and haven't finalized logistics and costs yet. However, we urge people to book travel and accommodations ASAP, and send an e-mail to Elizabeth Easton [] and Andy MacKinnon [] letting us know you'll be there.


From: Lynne Milnes []

The International Biological Program (IBP) ran from 1964 to 1974, to "study the biological productivity of the earth and relate this to human adaptation and welfare." The Conservation of Terrestrial Communities Subcommittee (IBP-CT) section of this program was established to identify and set aside ecological reserves to protect representative ecosystems worldwide as gene banks, outdoor classrooms, and unique and representative habitats for flora and fauna. Professor Krajina joined the International Biological Program and within the IBP-CT section started a well planned protection of representative or unique sites as a Canadian contribution to this program. British Columbia seemed the obvious choice to start with in Canada because of its diverse geography, low population and unusual presence, in the world context, of pristine wilderness.

In 1971, under the direction of Vladimir Krajina, biologists chose approximately 50 sites in British Columbia as Ecological Reserves and the Ecological Reserves Act was passed by Order in Council creating these first 50 reserves. By 1976 the Ecological Reserves Unit was operating with Bristol Foster and Jim Pojar on the 10th floor of Harbour Towers. By 1978 Jim Pojar left to go north to Smithers, and Hans Roemer took his place while Trudy Chatwin was added. So there were 3 bicycles at Harbour Towers and much running up and down the stairs.

Ecological Reserve proposals were overseen by a scientific advisory committee of business, government and biology types that met once a year at the Annual General Meeting of Ecological Reserves held at UBC. At this time new proposals and newly established reserves were introduced. To establish a reserve it took several years of shuffling proposals past every resource agency hurdle such as parks, hydro, mines, forest service, fish and wildlife, water resources, BC Hydro, archaeological sites, etc. and everything was done by the three-person unit to expedite this process. Rogers Chocolates, cute pictures of cuddly animals, whatever bribery it took - was done to keep the ball rolling.

I was brought in in1980 to replace Trudy and introduce a volunteer warden program province-wide to look after the reserves. The volunteers were our eyes and ears in the regions. They were related to the fish and wildlife guy, their son-in law worked in the mines branch or somebody they knew could help us when we needed it and we needed help a lot.

By 1980 Ecological Reserve Proposals were becoming political. The Stein River Valley, the Khutzeymateen, South Moresby, the Tahshish, Meares Island, the Nimpkish River, Robson Bight, the Tsitika, Spruce Lake, the Valhallas, to name only a few of the areas that were embroiled in a new public input process which would later be rolled into "Land Resource Management Plans" (LRMPs). Environmentalism was coming out of the closet and now the eyes of the world were on BC.

It was not unusual for the little Ecoserve Unit to have a film crew from Japan, scientists from Italy, politicians from the USA visiting during the field season. This made the bureaucrats nervous. They had every right to be. We were very determined and fearless. When all else failed we called in Royalty and with the help of the students at Pearson College had Prince Philip’s visit the reason for the passage of the Race Rocks Ecological Reserve #97. Vicky Husband and I personally went to Jacques Cousteau’s office in Paris armed with photos of clearcuts on the Queen Charlotte Islands to get his endorsement of Haida Gwai prior to Cousteau's BC visit during Expo 86. Can you believe it was Vander Zalm who saved South Moresby?

My time at Ecological Reserves was running out. There was an election in 1983 and the Social Credit government got in again which did not bode well for the politically insensitive Ecological Reserves Unit. I was a young naive civil servant who believed all information should be available to the public. It did not take long before I realized I could be more effective outside the system. Before I quit, because I knew my job would never be replaced, a group of us started the Friends of Ecological Reserves. I had a colleague in Ottawa who fast tracked our application for non-profit status. Meanwhile my bureaucratic bosses in Victoria were trying to shut down the warden system. These regional volunteers were a very effective regional support group but the ER Unit was more and more muzzled by the bureaucratic process in Victoria.

Despite these set backs we persevered. The ER Unit had its own doorway into the press as Bristol Foster's cousin was the editor of the Victoria daily newspaper. Don Vipond gave us editorial space when we needed it. The Friends was established in May of 1983 and we used our new non-profit status and media connections to raise money for research in Ecological Reserves because that same year the ER scientific advisory panel was dismissed by the newly elected government. Without having had the press on our side I am sure the Ecological Reserves Unit would have been disbanded then, too.

Twenty years later the Friends are still supporting scientific research and reaching out to volunteer wardens. Ecological Reserves are now amalgamated into Parks and Parks planners are coming to the Friends to get us to help them manage Parks but we have enough to do. The Friends puts out a newsletter 3 times a year for wardens and members. We support research by students in Reserves and often give the initial seed money necessary to get a project off the ground. We gave the first grant to Jane Watson now Dr. Jane Watson at Malapsina College studying sea otter - sea urchin population dynamics. Dr. Tom Reimchen and many of his students have benefited from our philanthropy and we have a scholarship for volunteerism in the Environmental Studies Faculty under Vicky Husband's name, the largest scholarship in the whole department.

I know that some people, including Adolf Ceska, would like to re-establish the scientific advisory committee and Friends discussed this at our last board meeting. We have decided not to support this motion not because it isn’t a good idea but because we would prefer leaders from industry, government and science to come and sit on our board. We need all these different voices to guide us. So I would like to leave you with 10 things you can do to help continue the program of Ecological Reserves started by Vladimir Krajina's vision:

  1. Become a member of the Friends.
  2. Give a membership to someone who you think would like it, or someone who needs to be educated or someone who could help financially.
  3. Volunteer time on a field trip, lead it; make sure students come along,
  4. Volunteer time on the board! I have been doing this since 1983 on a volunteer basis while working full time. I wouldn’t mind a year or two off.
  5. Encourage others to sit on the board. We need new blood.
  6. Write the government on behalf of Ecological Reserves - make a phone call.
  7. Pass a newsletter or our website address to biologists in other countries, other provinces. It would be nice to know how other ecological reserves are fairing.
  8. Encourage people you know in the regions to become volunteer wardens. There are many reserves in the province without wardens which means no one is looking.
  9. Help us organize an annual warden meeting. These gatherings are vital to volunteers in order to share ideas and promote change.
  10. Make a contribution to the Friends.

We do not have an office. We have a part-time M.Sc. student who volunteers many hours every week beyond the minimum wage we pay her for one day a month. Your money is not wasted. It will go directly to research and protecting BC pristine places as Vladimir Krajina would have liked it.

For more information please see Friends' web page: or the official British Columbia government web page:

For Ecological Reserves in Manitoba see:


From: Susan Farmer []

Trilliaceae is a family of petaloid, lilioid monocots. To paraphrase what Steven Elliott wrote of the genus Trillium in 1817, "this family is an interesting one. A whorl of leaves at the summit of a stem, supporting a single flower, it contains and conceals many species." In its most recent treatment (Farmer and Schilling 2002) the family, which exhibits an arcto-tertiary distribution, is comprised of 6 genera. Three genera have a wide distribution: Paris from Iceland to Japan, Daiswa from eastern Asia, and Trillium from North America and eastern Asia. Three remaining genera are endemic and each of them has only one species: Trillidium govanianum Kunth, with a tepaloid inflorescence, from the Himalayan Mountains; Kinugasa japonica (Franch. & Sav.) Tatew. & Suto, with petaloid sepals, from Japan; and the newly described genus Pseudotrillium with one species, Pseudotrillium rivale (S. Wats.) S. Farmer that has spotted petals, from the Pacific Northwest.

Pseudotrillium rivale, formerly Trillium rivale, was first recognized as distinct based on DNA sequence data, being neither a Trillium nor a member of the genus Paris but separate from both. Morphological characters that supported the distinct and basal position of Pseudotrillium rivale are:

  1. the spotted petals,
  2. the glossy, heart-shaped, Philodendron-like leaf, and
  3. the elongating pedicel.

Pollen was examined to see if it was Trillium-like (spherical and omniaperturate) or Paris-like (ellipsoidal, and monosulcate); it was Trillium-like. Other characters were contributed by members of Trillium-L, an internet mailing list devoted to Trillium and other woodland plants. These characters included a leaf-like cotyledon rather than the normal strap-like cotyledon of Trillium. It was also reported that once a plant reached the 3-leaf stage, there was always a flower unless the plant had been damaged by predation.

Molecular evidence also supported the recognition of the segregate genera within Paris s.l. Surprisingly, Kinugasa is more closely related to Daiswa than it is to Paris. The placement of Trillidium is still problematic. It is very closely related to the eastern Trillium undulatum, but morphologically it is more closely related to Paris, Daiswa, and Kinugasa than to Trillium. Recent work published by Dr. Fukuda indicated that Trillium undulatum, or its progenitor, may be the Trillium parent of the polyploid Trillidium (Fukuda 2001a, 2001b) . Work is ongoing to investigate the relationships between these taxa.

Current studies concern the Delostylis group of pedicellate Trillium. The name was applied by Rafinesque (1819) to refer to species with a common style and three slender stigmas. In all other species of Trillium, the stigmas are sessile upon the ovary. As defined by Rafinesque, this group is comprised of four species: Trillium persistens, T. catesbaei, T. nivale, and Trillium pusillum. Other than northern US T. nivale, all of these are species of the southern Appalachians and southeastern United States.

The new genus Pseudotrillium S.B. Farmer, a monotypic genus, with the type species Pseudotrillium rivale (S.Wats.) S.B. Farmer based on Trillium rivale S.Wats. was published in Systematic Botany 27(4): 687.

Key to the genera of Trilliaceae

1. Inflorescence composed of tepals (if outer perianth  segments
   are  green,  shape  and  size  of  inner  and  outer segments
   similar); phyllotaxy trimerous
   .......................................  Trillidium (1 sp.)

1. Inflorescence composed of sepals and petals (shape  and  size
   of inner and outer segments dissimilar); phyllotaxy trimerous
   to numerous.

   2. Sepals showy, white; petals filiform (to 1[-2] mm wide) or
      ......................................  Kinugasa (1 sp.)

   2. Sepals  green or purplish; petals filiform to broad (0.1-6
      cm wide), or absent.

      3. Phyllotaxy mostly 4- to 11-merous; leaves (0.8-) 2-5 (-
         7) cm wide (rarely to  60  cm  with  fewer  leaves  and
         height to 1m or more); petals filiform 1-2 (-3) mm wide
         (rarely 5-6 mm).

         4. Placentation axile; seeds with partial green aril or
            aril absent
            ..................................  Paris (14 sp.)

             Placentation  parietal; seeds with enclosing red or
            orange sarcotesta
            .................................  Daiswa (10 sp.)

      3. Phyllotaxy mostly trimerous with leaves (0.8-) 5–15  (-
         25)  cm  wide;  petals (2-) 7–15 (-60) cm wide (if nar-
         rower, petals either white or pink, or plants  sessile-

         5. Petals  generally spotted, ovate, frequently appear-
            ing clawed; leaves cordate to rounded, coriaceous
            ..........................  Pseudotrillium (1 sp.)

         5. Petals not spotted, from ovate  to  obovate;  leaves
            ovate to obovate, herbaceous, or not coriaceous
            ...............................  Trillium (41 sp.)


Farmer, S.B. and E.E. Schilling. 2002.
Phylogenetic analyses of Trilliaceae based on morphological and molecular data. Systematic Botany 27: 674-692.
Fukuda, I. 2001a.
The origina and evolution of Trillium. 1. The origin of Himalayan Trillium govanianum. Cytologia 66: 106-111.
Fukuda, I. 2001b.
The origin and evolution in Trillium 2. Chromosome variation of Trillium undulatum in North America. Cytologia 66: 319-327.
Rafinesque, C. S. 1819.
Prodrome des nouveaux genres des plantes observe´s en 1817 et 1818 dans l’interieur des tats-Unis d’Amerique. Journal de physique, de chimie, d’historie naturelle et des arts 89: 102


From: Gerry Mulligan []

I have just up-dated my Key to the Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) of Canada and Alaska (cf. BEN # 256). It is now on the website

I have also put information on common Canadian weeds at and on Canadian poisonous plants at

Gerry Mulligan


From: P.L.Nimis [] - originally posted in

On the occasion of the 5th International Congress of Lichenology, which will be held in Tartu (Estonia) in August 2004, the International Association for Lichenology (IAL) will introduce and present the Sylvia Sharnoff Education Award. The Award is dedicated to the memory of Sylvia Duran Sharnoff, a remarkable lichen photographer, who conceived of the idea of a colour-illustrated, popularized but scientifically accurate treatment of the lichens of North America and, with her husband, Stephen Sharnoff, produced almost 1000 superb lichen photographs for the book. The award will be given to the best web page devoted to lichens, prepared by a class or a school at pre-university level, in the years 2000 to 2003 (in any language). Any aspect of lichen biology used in an educational program would be acceptable. The selection of the Award winner[s] will be entrusted to an International Committee of three members, including a non-lichenological expert in the field of education, and will involve a pre-screening of the web pages by various national/regional lichenological societies worldwide. The main evaluation criteria will be: aesthetic appeal, clarity, educational impact; lichenological accuracy, useful links, and practicality for the targeted age group. A metadata web page with links to all of the submitted web pages, and a publication devoted to the Award will be forwarded to all participants. A printed selection of the best web pages will constitute the core of an exhibition on "Lichens and Education", which will be inaugurated in Tartu in August 2004, and which will then circulate to several other cities and towns elsewhere in the world. To apply, an interested class or school can use a simple form available on-line, at:

Deadline for submissions is December 31, 2003.


From: William A. Weber []

Frahm, Jan-Peter, and Jens Eggers. 2001.
Lexikon deutschsprachiger Bryologen. Books in Demand GmbH, Norederstedt, Germany. 672 p.,.[with biographies, portraits, many bibliographies] ISBN 3-8311-0986-9 [soft cover] Price: Euro 38.50

Your book store can order the book from
Books in Demand GmbH, Gutenbergring 53, 228489 Norederstedt, Germany; e-mail

You can also order it directly from Koeltz: (Price: Euro 51.00)

This is one of those extraordinary works that one doesn't expect to see any more. A magnificent reference book of 1335 German-speaking (mostly German nationals) bryologists. Since bryologists were often at first or mainly plant collectors or vascular plant men, or lichenologists, this is a much more useful volume than one aimed only at bryologists. In many instances, some of the most important authors, especially of the early days, are represented by not on their dates, portraits, and biographies, with references to sources, but also list of their publications. This is a real treasure that should be in every botanical library! The senior author is a specialist world-wide of the moss genus Campylopus (Dicranaceae).



As most of you already know, Flora Nordica has economical problems. In the future, the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences will only give marginal support. During the past year we have heard many appreciating words but, regrettably, all applications for economic support have been rejected. To meet the new situation, the project organization has been changed in some respects. A Nordic project committee, representing all countries, takes a very active part in, e.g., strategic discussions, contacts with authors, and fund-raising in all countries.

There is some hope that some money will be granted for 2004, but we will not know until next November; Arne Anderberg will therefore use SEK 50.000 of his museum budget for Flora Nordica, to pay at least one person for working at the secretariat until then. At the moment, we are occupied with the "General Volume" that will be published during 2003. 12 more volumes will cover the rest of our flora (see the attached conspect of volumes). Work is in progress especially with volume 3 (including the Brassicaceae, Crassulaceae and Saxifragaceae), and volume 6 (including the Violaceae, Onagraceae and Apiaceae). The volume first completed will be the first to be published.

In spite of the problems we are in good mood, and eager to go on working. Our fellow botanists and Flora Nordica collaborators, amateurs and professionals all over Norden, possess enormous amounts of information which has never been published. It would be a pity if their knowledge disappeared with them. We think that the Flora Nordica project is an investment for future botanical research, too valuable to be discontinued!

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