ISSN 1188-603X

No. 344 March 14, 2005 Victoria, B.C.
Dr. A. Ceska, P.O.Box 8546, Victoria, B.C. Canada V8W 3S2

This issue of BEN is dedicated to the memory of


who died on February 10, 2005


From: Del Meidinger, Jim Pojar & Andy MacKinnon

George W. Douglas died February 10, 2005 after a particularly severe, but mercifully brief bout of cancer. This was his sixth attack of cancer in the past 25 years - the others he was able to fight off, against the odds.

George's love to nature had its roots years spent at the base of Burnaby Mountain. Born on June 22, 1938, in New Westminster, BC, he grew up on North Road in the Burquitlam neighbourhood. When He died he was living on North Road in Duncan, BC. During his teenage years, George was nuts about sports and played basketball in high school. He first went to University on a sport scholarship: track, golf and basketball!

George was a well-known botanist and ecologist in northwestern North America. In his post-graduate work he studied the ecology of high elevation areas in the North Cascades of western WA and S BC (Cathedral Lakes Park). His supervising professors were Ronald J. Taylor (Western Washington University) and Lawrence Bliss (University of Alberta). While working towards his doctorate, he had a number of part-time jobs: mill worker, cannery worker, abbatoir worker, ambulance driver and taxi driver. Each one made him truly appreciate being able to work at something he loved.

As a consulting ecologist in the 1970s, he conducted many of the ecological studies in the newly established Kluane National Park, Yukon Territory. This led to a series of journal publications on the vegetation and flora of southwest Yukon.

Although he began his career as an ecological consultant, after his first bout with cancer, he semi-retired and dedicated his work time to botany. Late in his career he joined the British Columbia public service as chief botanist for the BC Conservation Data Centre.

His passion for botany and dogged determination to see projects through to completion led to many key botanical publications. Of note are his treatments of the Asteraceae in British Columbia, his works on the rare vascular plants of both the Yukon and British Columbia, and his leadership in the Illustrated Flora of British Columbia. In addition to these major achievements, George published numerous individual taxonomic treatments, range extensions, and status reports. George also spearheaded or contributed to several high-quality 'glossy' books, including Kluane, pinnacle of the Yukon (1980), Plants of Northern British Columbia (1992), Plants of the Southern Interior of British Columbia (1995), and Mountain Plants of the Pacific Northwest (1995). The Illustrated Flora of British Columbia would not have been possible without George's leadership and commitment. He was an excellent field botanist. Broad field experience formed his approach to herbarium taxonomy, which was marked by comprehension of the literature, curiosity, a desire for simplicity, and a healthy skepticism of nomenclatural arcana and obsessive-compulsive behaviour.

A prolific author and hard-working botanist, George was able to balance this with other aspects of his life. He thoroughly enjoyed golf and gardening, good wine and food, and fancy automobiles. He was not immune to gaming and playing the stock market. He especially loved rambling and botanizing in the mountains, even latterly when he was not a healthy man. He wore a carapace of gruffness and could be curmudgeonly, but he had a fine sense of humour and of the absurd.

[For the photo of George W. Douglas with his cat and their favourite reading pose, visit]

[Added somewhat later (12 October 2005) is a complete bibliography.]


From: Hans Roemer []

This contribution is dedicated to the memory of Dr. George W. Douglas who did so much for the definition, classification and tracking of British Columbia's rare plant species.

Mill Hill is a small park near Victoria, BC, one of about 24 parks administered by the Capital Regional District (CRD) on southeastern Vancouver Island and the southern Gulf Islands. Rare vascular plants were inventoried on Mill Hill in the context of the Mill Hill Regional Park Restoration Plan completed in 2002. The work was commissioned by CRD Parks and supported by the Habitat Stewardship Program for Species at Risk, a Government of Canada program.

Mill Hill was long known to local naturalists and botanists as a locality of rare plants and it was easy to gain the perception that an inventory could only turn up some more occurrences for already known species, but would not result in significant additions to the list of rare species (i.e. the species that are listed as RED or BLUE in the 2003 vesrion of the BC Conservation Data Centre's list). It therefore came as a surprise that by the summer of 2004 there was not only a five-fold increase in rare plant occurrences (occurrence roughly at the subpopulation level), but also a 40% increase in the number of rare species encountered. All occurrences were recorded with a hand-held GPS unit and later mapped on a color orthophoto.

Of 13 red and blue-listed species, a total of 130 occurrences were located in the first season (2003) and an additional 30 occurrences in the second season. Searches and counts for the two most abundant blue-listed species, Isoetes nuttallii and Trifolium depauperatum, were discontinued after the first season as some subpopulations numbered between 500 and 3,000 individuals and would have taken a disproportionate amount of time to track.

Agrostis pallens Trin. (dune bentgrass)
Mill Hill appears to be too dry and warm and to provide only marginal habitat for this species. Only two relatively small occurrences of this blue-listed grass were found near the upper north and east-facing slopes.

Allium amplectens Torr. (slim-leaf onion)
Fourteen colonies of between a few and 700 individuals were located on Mill Hill, most of them associated with early- season seepage, but some of them also in other habitats. Large differences in the number of flowering plants was observed in the two years, with some of the occurrences showing large declines and others large increases.

Aster curtus Cronq. (white-top aster)
This federally listed threatened species occurs in stands of just a few to over 1,000 stems/shoots in 36 locations scattered over the hill, except on the south-facing slopes. At least another 10 stations occurred in an adjacent strip of land which has now been turned into a residential subdivision. It was noticed in 2003 that this aster is subject to heavy grazing by native deer and introduced eastern cottontail rabbits and that flowering specimens were extremely rare. In 2004 two shoot counts, one in May and one in August, were performed which confirmed the herbivory problem. Only 50% of the shoots that had been there in the earlier count were found again during the second count, with another 15% of shoots partially cropped. Casual observation of only some of the subpopulations in October 2004 appeared to show a nearly total disappearance of the plants. This raises concerns for the continued well-being of the population, especially as flowering time for this aster is as late as August and September. Concurrent exclosure experiments (Engelstoft 2005) also confirmed elaborated the herbivory problem.

Balsamorhiza deltoidea Nutt. (deltoid balsamroot)
A single population of about 55 individuals of this federally listed, endangered plant occurs in the park. This species, too, is struggling to maintain a viable population. Serious damage by grazing of the same two mammals, as well as herbivory by the larval stage of a moth (Eurois occulta) was observed in 2002. In 2003 most of the plants were protected with wire cages which prevented most of the leaf damage in 2004.

Clarkia amoena ssp. lindleyi (Dougl.) H.F. & M.E. Lewis (farewell-to-spring)
This blue-listed, attractive annual was found in seven locations in numbers ranging from a few to 150. Preferred habitats are steep and hot south-facing slopes and rocky ledges.

Clarkia purpurea ssp. quadrivulnera (Dougl. ex Lindl.) H.F. & M.E. Lewis (small-flowered godetia)
This red-listed species which was only confirmed for British Columbia a few years ago and is so far known from just four localities was the most surprising discovery for Mill Hill Park. This even more so, as some plants grow virtually on a main trail trodden over the years by many a botanist! One factor for it being overlooked for so long may be the timing: It flowers when nearly everything else has turned yellow and dry. 15 widely scattered subpopulations with between 2 and 150 individuals were eventually found after developing the appropriate "search image". The species grows on either shallow or stony soils subject to early-season seepage.

Heterocodon rariflorum Nutt. (heterocodon)
Finds of this very tiny blue-listed annual skyrocketed from seven to 19 subpopulations between 2003 and 2004. The subpopulations which rarely cover more than a square meter or two had estimated numbers of individuals between 100 and 9,000. A species apparently not seen in this park before.

Idahoa scapigera (Hook.) A. Nels. & J.F. Macbr. (scalepod)
Another minute annual, this red-listed species was found in five subpopulations of between four and 420 plants. It prefers moss- covered rock walls and benches which are wet in early spring.

Isoetes nuttallii A. Braun ex Engelm. (Nuttall's quillwort)
One of the more abundant "rare" plants in Mill Hill, this species occurred in at least 12 locations and ranged from under 50 to about 700 individuals in each. Further counts were suspended after the first season.

Lotus unifoliolatus (Hook.) Benth. (Spanish clover)
Another blue-listed species, this small annual legume is relatively rare in the park and does not appear to find ideal growing conditions. Only four occurrences with between 30 and 280 plants were found.

Piperia elegans (Lindl.) Rydb. (seaside rein orchid)
Only a single individual of this blue-listed species was found in the park (two other Piperia - species - i.e. Piperia transversa Suksdorf and P. elongata Rydb. are common).

Sanicula bipinnatifida Dougl. ex Hook. (purple sanicle)
A monocarpic perennial, this species is federally listed as threatened. It has 26 stations in the park, most with few individuals. Numbers, including young seedlings, were between a few and an exceptional 121. The largest number of flowering plants was 32. This is also a species subject to grazing, as opposed to its much more abundant relative, Sanicula crassicaulis Poepp. ex Hook., which is not touched by animals.

Trifolium depauperatum Desv. (poverty clover)
Another blue-listed annual relatively abundant in the park, this species has 26 subpopulations, each of them with between few and 500 individuals (average 160). Our plants belong to T. depauperatum var. depauperatum. Three other varieties are endemic to California.

In conclusion, studies in Mill Hill Regional Park demonstrate that in-depth botanical inventories can add significant quantity and detail to our knowledge, even in areas which may be assumed to be floristically well-known. Mill Hill contains an amazing proportion and diversity of our rare flora, considering it is only 60 hectares in size. In addition to being under attack from invasive plants, especially Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link, this park has recently been "sandwiched" between two new up-scale housing developments. Further, some of its most imperiled rare species, especially Aster curtus, and Balsamorhiza deltoidea, are strongly impacted through grazing by an overabundance of native deer, apparently displaced by land development, and also through grazing by introduced eastern cottontail.


Engelstoft, C. 2005.
In preparation: The impact of grazing on white-top aster by Black-tailed Deer and Eastern Cottontail following Scotch broom removal in Mill Hill Regional Park, 2004. Report prepared for Capital Regional District Parks. Alula Biological Consulting, 1967 Nicholas Road, Saanichton, BC. V8M 1X8
Roemer, H. 2003.
Rare Plant Monitoring at Mill Hill Regional Park. A project carried out for Capital Regional District Parks. Unpublished report. CRD Parks, 490 Atkins Ave., Victoria, BC, V9B 2Z8.
Roemer, H. 2004.
2004 Rare Plant Monitoring at Mill Hill Park. A project carried out for Capital Regional District Parks. Unpublished report. CRD Parks, 490 Atkins Ave., Victoria, BC, V9B 2Z8.


From: Frank Lomer []
To this effort and for many years of plant collecting I am indebted to George Douglas who has provided the groundwork that fuels my passion to learn more about the plants around me.

Chamaesyce serpens (Kunth) Small
Greater Vancouver, Burnaby, Gardenworks Nursery. Weed in windmill palm wood boxes. 19 June, 2004 (Lomer 5274).

Prostrate annual weed from South America. So far known only as a nursery weed confined to imported potting soil from a number of nurseries in Greater Vancouver and one in Salmon Arm. Collected once as a casual from Surrey where it no doubt arose from nursery soil in landscape plantings (Lomer 94- 243).

Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L.) DC.
Greater Vancouver, Burnaby, Southridge Drive. Topsoil in new median divider. 3 November, 2004 (Lomer 5558).

European weed. Waif. Collected at least once before in Victoria: (Lomer 93-259).

Eragrostis pectinacea (Michx.) Nees
Vancouver Island, 9 km south of Nanaimo Gravel pit roadbed. 9 December, 2004 (Lomer 5573).

Considered a rare native plant in the Osoyoos area, but I believe all BC populations are introductions from elsewhere. This maybe the first collection from Vancouver Island. It is a rare roadside weed in the Vancouver area.

Erysimum repandum L.
Greater Vancouver, Richmond, E of 16060 Westminster Hwy. Single plant in topsoil along new sidewalk. 9 May, 2004 (Lomer 5196).

European waif is much like E. cheiranthoides L. but petals are bigger and leaves are generally lobed.

Collected once before by railroad tracks in New Westminster (Lomer 90-021).

Hyoscyamus niger L.
Rocky Mt. Trench, Invermere. Dry weedy rodside next to grassy vacant lot. 11 June, 2004 (Lomer 5260).

So far just a rare casual in BC.

Hypericum humifusum L.
Greater Vancouver, Surrey, Darts Hill Garden Park Weed along garden path. 2 October, 2004 (Lomer 5534).

Prostrate European weed. Several in one section of Mrs. Dart's garden. I would highly recommend a visit to Darts Hill if you love plants.

Liparis loeselii (L.) L.C. Rich.
Rocky Mt. Trench, Golden, near Columbia River and Kicking Horse River. Calcareous floodplain channel. 11 June, 2004 (Lomer 5263).

This rare orchid was known in BC only from limited sites in the Mara-Shuswap area. It was growing with Carex crawei Dewey, Eleocharis quinqueflora (F.X. Hartmann) Schwarz, Carex flava L. I suspect it can be found in other calcareous fens in the Rocky Mt. Trench.

Luzula campestris (L.) DC.
Prevost Island, (E of Saltspring Island), James Bay, meadow 1 km E of O'Reilly Beach Frequent in several patches in wet grassy meadow and into sheep pasture. 30 April, 2004 (Lomer 5194).

This European introduction has been confused in the past with native members of Luzula section Luzula but can be easily told from similar native plants by its creeping stolons. It forms dense multi-stemmed patches compared to the discrete clumps of our native species in section Luzula. Also collected in Greater Vancouver: New Westminster (Lomer 4682), Langley (Lomer 4690).

Lythrum portula (L.) D.A. Webb
Vancouver Island, Port Alberni, Somass River delta. Tidal mud bank. 2 August, 2004 (Lomer 5393).

Introduced from Eurasia and first found in the Vancouver area in 1986. Expected to spread on Vancouver Island.

Panicum rigidulum Bosc ex Nees
Vancouver Island, Sproat Lake, Sproat Lake Prov. Park Campground. Several on sandy beach shore. 3 August, 2004 (Lomer 5398).

Introduced from E North America. It was cited from Sproat Lake by John Macoun in 1888 and apparently persisted though it was not noted since that time. It looks like it is P. r. ssp. rigidulum with purplish tints.

Pellaea glabella Mettenius ex Kuhn ssp. occidentalis (E. Nels.) Windham
Rocky Mts., Yoho N.P., Mt. Field. Limestone cliff base. 9 June, 2004 (Lomer 5236).

Much like Pellaea glabella ssp. simplex Butters, but it is a more dwarfed plant with wider, less divided blue-green leaves that tend to hug the rock surface on which it grows unlike the more erect P. g. ssp. simplex. It is also diploid with 64 spores per sporangium.

Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.
Greater Vancouver, Burnaby, Big Bend. Railroad tracks in industrial area. 10 November, 2004 (Lomer 5570).

This is the more aggresive European haplotype with a more bushy inflorescence and stiffer stems than the native race. It is perhaps the first collection from the Vancouver area. The native race is very rare in the Fraser delta, known wild from near Steveston and Ladner where it is is confined to a small area. The Reifel Island bird sanctuary population was planted though it may occur natively away from the bird viewing area as well. I have not yet checked if it is the native or European race.

Physalis grisea (Waterfall) M. Martinez
Greater Vancouver, Coquitlam, Stella-Jones Wood Preserving Inc. Edge of rough dirt road. 3 October, 2004 (Lomer 5535).

Sticky annual weed with rather sweet fruit. Rare waif in Greater Vancouver: Burnaby (Lomer 95-212).

Polygonum douglasii Greene ssp. johnstonii (Munz) Hickman
Cascade Mts., Hozameen Range. trail to Windy Joe. Fine loose dry scree above trail. 26 June, 2004 (Lomer 5276).

Previously known in BC ony from a K. Beamish UBC collection in 1957 at probably the same site (Beamish 7856). Several collections along the Pacific Crest Trail (Lomer 5277, 5278, 5284, 5301, 5307). Previously known as P. sawatchense Small, which I still prefer.

Potentilla anglica Laicharding
Prevost Island, (E of Saltspring Island), James Bay, meadow 1 km E of O'Reilly Beach Campground. Few patches in wet meadow dominated by Agrostis sp. 30 April 2004 (Lomer 5193).

European introduction with trailing stems and flowers with mostly 4 petals. Seen from two sites on Prevost. Previously collected from the Vancouver area: North Vancouver (Lomer 88- 094), Burnaby (Lomer 99-095), Richmond (Lomer 4296).

Sporobolus cryptandrus (Torr.) A. Gray
Fraser Valley, confluence of Pitt and Fraser Rivers. Sandy ridge on sandy gravel island. 13 October, 2004 (Lomer 5538).

Frequent native grass east of the Coast Mts. in BC, but this population is the only one native on the west side. Arising, no doubt, from seeds washed naturally down the Fraser. It has been collected as a casual introduction in sand dredgings and road sweepings in the Vancouver area.

Trichophorum pumilum (Vahl) Schinz & Thell.
Rocky Mts., Yoho National Park, Natural Bridge on Kicking Horse River. Calcareous rivershore. 9 June, 2004 (Lomer 5231).

It seems this inconspicuous little plant (formerly Scirpus pumilus Vahl) is much more common than originally thought. It is considered rare in BC, but was collected at several wet calcareous sites in SE BC in 2004: Kootenay Nat. Park, Paint Pots (Lomer 5241), Rocky Mt. Trench, Windermere Creek (Lomer 5256), Yoho Park, Kicking Horse River & Hwy 1 (Lomer 5510).

Ventenata dubia (Leers) Coss. & Dur.
Vancouver Island, Errington Gravel pit roadway. 3 August, 2004 (Lomer 5399).

Weedy Eurasian annual grass. Probably first collection from Vancouver Island. It is rare, but established around Vancouver.

Verbascum virgatum Stokes
Greater Vancouver, Surrey, CN railyards. Cleared gravelly area near railroad tracks. 4 September, 2004 (Lomer 5448).

European weed, much like V. blattaria L. but more glandular and mostly more than one flower per bract. Casual in Fraser Valley: Hope (Lomer 5037).

Zostera japonica Aschers. & Graebn.
Vancouver Island, Tofino. Stony mud bay with shoreline seepage. 2 August, 2004 (Lomer 5386).

Probably native to eastern Asia. This may be the first west coast collection in BC. Known previously from Greater Vancouver and Chemainus.

All collections will be deposited in the UBC herbarium.


From: Will Mackenzie []

Alpine environments have long held allure for ecologists and naturalists. The stunning scenery and the verdant flower meadows are made that much sweeter by the efforts required to reach them and the solitudes in which they are found. George Douglas was one such admirer, smitten by the highlands, who spent a good portion of his early career describing the alpine ecosystems of the Cascades and Yukon.

British Columbia and its neighbours are blessed with an abundance of alpine environments. 12.5% of the landmass of British Columbia is categorized as alpine or subalpine. These areas form a significant and conspicuous part of the landscape and have received considerable classification work at a local level since the late 1960s. However, a broader synthesis of alpine ecosystems has been accorded little effort. The father of Biogeoclimatic Ecosystem Classification in British Columbia, Dr. Vladamir Krajina, noted that there could be three alpine zones but did not provide any further differentiation (Krajina 1965). Similarly, Jim Pojar provided a rough sketch of three major alpine divisions in the "Ecosystems of British Columbia".

Currently, the biogeoclimatic mapping for the province shows only "AT - Alpine Tundra" from the Tatsenshini to the Flathead. The lack of a comprehensive treatment of Alpine is a glaring omission in our ability to expand ecological knowledge of these areas. A compilation of existing plot data, field notes, published descriptions, and contemporary field sampling supports the existence of 3 major biogeoclimatic divisions of the Alpine.

The Coastal Mountain-Heather Alpine Zone (CMA)

The CMA zone occurs throughout the windward Coast Mountains and islands from Washington to Alaska above the Mountain Hemlock parkland (MHp). In the south, the CMA starts around 1600 m, but this falls to 900 m in the north. The zone is characterized by a maritime snow pack; very deep, dense, relatively warm, and with abundant melt features. The tree line is depressed by the heavy and prolonged snow cover and much of the region is covered by ice at the elevation of true alpine. Therefore, the "Alpine" is mostly extensive subalpine heath snow beds where tree patches occur on elevated rocky knobs that accumulate less snow. Summers are relatively cool and moderate compared to other alpine zones because of summer cloud cover and oceanic influence. The coastal Alpine is distinguished from other zones by the pervasiveness of mountain-heathers in almost all landscape positions. In the south (< 55 latitude), Cassiope mertensiana and Phyllodoce empetriformis form the widespread zonal community and dominate the subalpine heath. On the mainland, north of 55 latitude, Harrimanella stelleriana becomes a co-dominant with Cassiope mertensiana. On the Queen Charlotte Islands, Cassiope lycopoidioides is conspicuous.

Late snowbeds dominated by Carex nigricans or Saxifraga tolmiei, meadows of Carex spectablis and seepages of Caltha leptosepala and Leptarrhena pyrolifolia are common but typically notof large aerial extent.

Brett et al. (1998) provide a thorough description of community types that occur inthe southern portion of the CMA. The diversity of community types and species is relatively low compared to inland areasbecause of the over-arching effects of the heavy snow pack.

The Interior Mountain-Heather Alpine Zone (IMA)

The Interior Mountain-heather Alpine Zone (IMA) occupies the southern interior alpine above the Engelmann Spruce - Subalpine Ffir parkland (ESSFp), starting at elevations as high as 2500m in the south to about 1800m at its northern limit. The IMA includes the alpine of the Columbia Mountains, the Southern Rocky Mountains to the vicinity of McBride, the Northern Cascades and the most southerly areas of the lee Coast Mountains from the vicinity of Goldbridge southward. The snowpack in the IMA is classically alpine; generally deep, cool, consisting of well-consolidated snow layers of variable thickness and density with a basal depth hoar layer. Deep snow layers and relatively warm winter temperatures mean that ground-freezing and cryogenic processes are limited. Average summer temperatures are likely similar to northern alpine areas (because of the compensating factor of higher elevation of the alpine environment) but day length is shorter and extreme high temperatures may be more frequent.

The zonal vegetation of the IMA is less consistent than the CMA, but mountain-heathers are typically common in moist and wetter regions. Phyllodoce glanduliflora is common throughout much of the IMA and is typically part of the zonal ecosystems along with P. empetriformis and C. mertensiana. A common and diagnostic associate of mountain-heather communities in the IMA is Antennaria lanata.

The wetter regions of the IMA, especially like those in the area of Revelstoke, are coastal-like in many respects but still contain species that are of interior distribution. Moist and wet subzones are the most diverse alpine areas in the province and often support expanses of forb rich meadows. In drier subzones, Dryas octopetala or other dwarf woody species such as Salix cascadensis or Vaccinium scoparium and V. caespitosum are more common.

Boreal Altai Fescue Alpine Zone (BAFA)

The BAFA occurs mostly north of 54 latitude but trails as far south as 51 on the lee side of the Coast Mountains in the Chilcotin. The southern BAFA occurs above the ESSF parkland at elevations of 2000m in the south to 1700m in the north. And, it also occupies the alpine above the Spruce-Willow-Birch Scrub (SWBs) at elevations of 1600 m. This is the largest alpine zone by area with extensive, well-vegetated tundra occupying large areas of the northern plateaux. The majority of the BAFA has a thin and windblown, tundra-like snow pack but some areas such as the coast transition of the Nass and Iskut valleys above the very wet Interior Cedar - Hemlock and the McGregor Mountains above the very wet Sub-Boreal Spruce zones have deeper snowpacks. All areas have cold winters and ground freezing and cryoturbation features are likely wherever the snowpack is thin. Wind sorting of the snow pack seems more prevalent here because of cold unbonded snow pack and wind-exposed mountain ranges.

Festuca altaica is the characteristic species of the BAFA, dominating zonal ecosystems in southern and mid-latitude subzones. In the northern BAFA, this species only occurs on warm aspects and is replaced by Carex microchaeta - Salix polaris & S. reticulata communities on zonal sites. In very dry regions, such as the lee slopes of the northern Rocky Mountains, Dryas integrifolia communities are widespread.

These new alpine Zones will appear on subsequent versions of biogeoclimatic mapping, beginning with the release of a new digital map in April 2005, and a new zone map shortly afterwards. Designation of further division of zones into subzones is on- going and will likely be completed for the southern interior within a year and elsewhere as continued fieldwork and analysis confirm subzone types and boundaries. A classification of alpine and subalpine plant communities is also on-going. Final draft descriptions for all of components will be posted on the BECWeb:


Brett, R. B., K. Klinka, & H. Qian. 1998.
Classification of high-elevation, non-forested plant communities in coastal British Columbia. Scientia Silvica. 58 p.
Krajina, V.J. 1965.
Biogeoclimatic zones and biogeocoenoses of British Columbia. Ecol. West. N. Amer. 1:1-17.
Pojar, J., & A. C. Stewart. 1991.
"Chapter 18: Alpine Tundra Zone." Pp. 263-274 in Meidinger, D. & J. Pojar [eds.] Ecosystems of British Columbia. British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Victoria, BC


George Douglas was an excellent gourmet cook. He didn't have one favourite recipe, but many. He often said he "thought this up on the way home". The following recipe was enjoyed many times over, usually as an appetizer.

Seafood Medley

Based on the number of servings gather together clams, mussels, prawns, scallops. Fresh is best.

To serve:


Send submissions to
BEN is archived at