ISSN 1188-603X

No. 462 January 9, 2013 Victoria, B.C.
Dr. A. Ceska, P.O. Box 8546, Victoria, B.C. Canada V8W 3S2


From: John McNeill originally posted in TAXACOM on December 20, 2012 & January 5, 2013

The International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants (The Melbourne Code) was published today (20 December 2012) both in hardcopy (as Regnum Vegetabile vol. 154 see and online see the International Association for Plant Taxonomy web page at [or: ]

This new Melbourne Code, the ICN, replaces the Vienna Code, published in 2006 under the title International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) and incorporates the decisions taken at the XVIII International Botanical Congress held in Melbourne, Australia, in July 2011. (see, e.g., )

The changes in the rules include provision for electronic publication and the option of using English instead of Latin for descriptions of new taxa, both of which came into effect on 1 January 2012, and the requirements for "registration" of new names of fungi coming into effect on 1 January 2013.

The Spanish translation of the Melbourne Code is now also published. It is available from the Editora CSIC and the Real Jardín Botánico of Madrid at 15 plus postage. The "Spanish Melbourne Code" emulates the official English version as closely as possible.

The following comment by Scott Redhead and Lorelei Norvell was posted in Taxacom on December 21, 2012:

The Nomenclature Committee for Fungi has recommended three repositories for fungal names as required under article 42.1 starting 1 January 2013. These are: Mycobank:, Index Fungorum: and Fungal Names:

See also the announcement in IMA Fungus 3(2): 44-45. (2012) and the official report by the NCF in the upcoming February issue of the journal Taxon


Compiled from:

Matheny PB, Norvell LL, Giles EC. 2012.
A common new species of Inocybe in the Pacific Northwest with a diagnostic PDAB reaction. Mycologia 2012 Sep 6. [Epub ahead of print]


A species of Inocybe common in Washington, Oregon, and British Columbia is documented and described as new: Inocybe chondroderma Stuntz ex Matheny, Norvell et Giles. It is characterized by these features: pileus with a fulvous disc and ochraceous to chamois margin, presence of a cortina, densely mycelioid stipe base, smooth spores, and fall phenology. The most reliable and distinctive feature of the species is a blue-green or turquoise reaction in response to application of a solution of p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (PDAB), indicating the presence of what is most likely an indole alkaloid. PDAB use provides a quick and diagnostic character easily implemented in a laboratory setting. ITS sequences from recent collections of I. chondroderma and from historical materials collected in the 1940s in Washington and Oregon fully match numerous mislabelled sequences from specimens in British Columbia and Oregon. The new species is most closely related to an unclarified taxon from Colorado and Japan (I. cf. chondroderma) and a rare European species, I. subnudipes. Nine different species names in Inocybe and one in Hebeloma attributed to I. chondroderma based on GenBank BLASTN searches of the ITS locus match with 99-100% similarity, reinforcing concerns about taxonomic inaccuracies in public DNA sequence databases. A complete morphological description, illustrations, and phylogenetic assessment are provided.


PDAB reaction p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (PDAB) was prepared in a 2% solution by dissolving 0.5 g of PDAB in 19.1 ml 95% ethanol, to which 5.9 ml hydrochloric acid was added . The solution was stored in a 30 ml amber glass dropper bottle at room temperature and will maintain its efficacy indefinitely if not exposed to prolonged light. To perform a macrochemical test, a small wedge of pileus or stipe tissue was excised from a fresh basidiocarp and placed in a clean porcelain spot plate. One milliliter PDAB solution was poured over the chip. A positive result was noted when a turquoise or blue-green pigment leached from the flesh chip into solution. The reaction typically occurs within several seconds. A negative reaction was judged if no pigment was emitted into solution or if lamellae slowly turned faint pinkish purple. Dried basidiocarp tissue of I. chondroderma of various ages (1 day to 64 years) also was tested after rehydration in 250 ml sterile distilled water.

Editorial Note:

Authors saw the following specimen of Inocybe chondroderma from British Columbia: Vancouver Island, Lizard Lake, Pacific Northwest Key Council Meeting, 30 Oct 1999, S. Clark, PBM1760 (WTU).

University of British Columbia herbarium (UBC) is hosting a large collection of Incybe specimens and a part of that collection has been sequenced. Matheny et al. report that ITS sequences of twelve UBC Inocybe specimens from Vancouver Island made a perfect or almost perfect match with Inocybe chondrosperma. They were collected by O. Ceska and identified as Inocybe sindonia, I. posterula, I. aurticoma, I. abietis, I. kauffmanii, or Inocybe sp. The collections came from Observatory Hill (5), Metchosin - Rocky Point DND property (2 ), Mill Hill (2), Thetis Lake (1), Cobble Hill (1), and Koksilah Ridge (1). This may indicate that Inocybe chondroderna is relatively common on southern Vancouver Island.

For a good example of Inocybe chondroderma see the following Mushroom Observer Observation:


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