ISSN 1188-603X

No. 472 October 3, 2013 Victoria, B.C.
Dr. A. Ceska, P.O. Box 8546, Victoria, B.C. Canada V8W 3S2


Abstract and the key characters from: Nesom, G.L. 2013. The taxonomic status of Mimulus sookensis (Phrymaceae) and comments on related aspects of biology in species of Erythranthe. Phytoneuron 2013-69: 118. Published 26 September 2013. ISSN 2153 733X Posted in BEN with the permission of Guy L. Nesom -

ABSTRACT Mimulus sookensis, described by Benedict et al. (2012), is a tetraploid from the Vancouver Island area, western Oregon, and northwestern California hypothesized in molecular studies to be of hybrid origin between diploid Erythranthe nasuta [Mimulus nasutus] and diploid Erythranthe guttata [Mimulus guttatus]. The putative non-_nasutus parent in these studies apparently is more accurately identified as Erythranthe microphylla [Mimulus microphyllus]. Molecular evidence indicates that M. sookensis had two independent origins (disjunct northern and southern population systems) or perhaps as many, at least, as 11 independent origins. In the study that identified two origins, molecular evidence clusters the non-_nasutus parent of the northern tetraploids among populations sampled from central California counties, but the non-_nasutus parent of the southern tetraploids was not identified. Mimulus sookensis and typical Erythranthe nasuta often can be distinguished by slight differences in sizes when growing side-by-side, but size ranges of plants, flowers, and fruits are completely overlapping when the populational perspective is broadened, and the tetraploid is otherwise similar to the diploid in every morphological respect. It is impossible to distinguish them in the herbarium. In contrast, experimental hybrids and naturally occurring E. nasuta x microphylla hybrids apparently of contemporary origin are intermediate in morphology. Other examples of hybridization and introgression between Erythranthe nasuta and E. microphylla_/_E. guttata are reviewed. The origin and status of the hexaploid hybrid Mimulus peregrines are reviewed and two associated nomenclatural combinations are made: Erythranthe peregrine (Vallejo-Marín) Nesom, comb. nov., and Erythranthe × robertsii (Silverside) Nesom, comb. nov.


Contrasts between Mimulus sookensis and M. nasutus noted by Benedict (1993) and Benedict et al. (2012) are summarized here as a key couplet:
   1. Stems 325 cm high, less than 1 mm wide, often less sharply angled and winged; 
      leaves 0.53 x 0.52.5 mm; stipes 01 mm long; pedicels 322 mm long; calyces 
      513 mm long, more frequently with anthocyanic red spotting; corolla tube-throat
      narrowly funnel-shaped; maturing ovary or fruit usually 2.53.5 mm longer than
      the calyx ........................................ Mimulus sookensis 

   1. Stems 550 cm high, less than 4 mm wide, often more sharply angled and winged;
      leaves 0.510 x 0.57.5 mm; stipes 0.52 mm long; pedicels 426 mm long; calyces
      616.5 mm long, less frequently with anthocyanic red spotting; corolla tube-throat
      nearly cylindrical; maturing ovary or fruit usually equal or up to 6 mm shorter
      than the calyx      .........................................._Mimulus nasutus

Editorial comment: Full names with authorities are quite long for such a small plant: Mimulus sookensis B.G. Benedict, Modliszewski, Sweigart, N.H. Martin, Ganders & John H. Willis


Benedict, B.G. 1993.
Biosystematics of the Mimulus guttatus species complex. Master's thesis. University of B.C., Vancouver, BC.
Benedict, B.G., J.L. Modliszewski , A.L. Sweigart, N.H. Martin, F.R. Ganders, & J.H. Willis. 2012.
Mimulus sookensis (Phrymaceae), a new allotetraploid species derived from Mimulus guttatus and Mimulus nasutus. Madroño 59: 2943.
See also in previous issues of BEN:


From: Adolf Ceska

All of the eight volumes of the Illustrated Flora of British Columbia by G.W. Douglas et al. (1998-2002) can be downloaded from the British Columbia Ministry of Forests web site:

Those pdf files are not searchable and using them on cell phones is a dreadful experience. However, with more sophisticated pdf software, they can be converted into searchable pdf files and collated into a single file.


From: Richard Olmstead, Professor of Biology and Herbarium Curator, Burke Museum Department of Biology Box 355325 University of Washington Seattle, WA 98195

Hitchcock and Cronquist's Flora of the Pacific Northwest has been the authoritative guide to the region's flora since its publication in 1973. Generations of students, academic researchers, and field botanists have relied on this work to support their diverse botanical interests. However, the systematics, nomenclature, and distribution of our region's flora has changed over the course of 40 years due to ongoing research, access to more information, extensive fieldwork, and the introduction of many new species.

It is within this context that I am pleased to announce that the University of Washington Herbarium (WTU) at the Burke Museum is officially embarking on an update to the one-volume Flora of the Pacific Northwest (FPNW). Only about 50% of the first edition of the FPNW is consistent with contemporary taxonomy and nomenclature; the revised FPNW will need substantial name changes, new species added to keys, recognition of additional families, new illustrations, and updated distribution information.

For the past year we have been laying the foundation for this project through the development of workflows for revising treatments, working with the UW Press to resolve copyright issues relating to FPNW, rewriting the treatments for several families, and creating a project Web site. This work has been supported through generous initial donations of $40,000 provided by Jim Duemmel, Don Knoke, Carol Nygren, Peg Pearson, and an anonymous donor.

Collections Manager David Giblin and Informatics Specialist Ben Legler are leading the project, and we will be drawing upon the expertise of our colleagues throughout the region for input and guidance. As we move from planning to production, the first order of business is to raise funds to support Ben Legler, so that he can devote at least 50% of his time to this project. Ben has been supported primarily by NSF grants during the digitization efforts at WTU; we look forward to his continued involvement with the FPNW project. We hope to achieve this through a combination of external sources (e.g., foundation grants) and donor support. Tentatively we have a goal of Fall 2016 for delivering the final draft of the flora to the publisher so that it would be available for spring 2017.

To learn more about our efforts, please visit the project Web site: If you want to make a personal, tax-free donation to support the project, you can do so at our Herbarium support page ( and click the link for Pacific Northwest Flora Revision Project.

Feel free to contact either David Giblin ( or me ( with questions

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