BEN
BOTANICAL ELECTRONIC NEWS
ISSN 1188-603X


No. 537 May 16, 2019 aceska@telus.net Victoria, B.C.
Dr. A. Ceska, 1809 Penshurst, Victoria, BC, Canada V8N 2N6


RADIOCARBON DATING OF THE HAIDA GWAII FOSSIL DAWSON CARIBOU ANTLER

From: Rolf W. Mathewes, Michael Richards, Thomas E. Reimchen. 2019.Late Pleistocene age, size, and paleoenvironment of a caribou antler from Haida Gwaii, British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences: https://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/10.1139/cjes-2018-0246

Abstract The basal portion of a fossil caribou antler from Graham Island is the only evidence of large terrestrial vertebrates older than the Fraser (late-Wisconsin) glaciation on Haida Gwaii. This antler has been radiocarbon-dated three times by different laboratories and all ages fall within the mid-Wisconsin Olympia Interglaciation (Marine Isotope Stage 3, MIS 3). We suggest that the latest date, using ultrafiltration of bone collagen is closest to the true age at 43,200 650 BP (48,200-45,200 cal BP). Previous paleoecological analysis from Graham Island reconstructed a vegetation cover during MIS 3 consisting of mixed coniferous forest with non-forested openings, similar to cool subalpine forests of today. These conditions are consistent with environments that support Woodland Caribou and the related extinct Dawson caribou. Morphometric comparison of antlers from Woodland and Dawson Caribou suggest that they are more similar than previously interpreted, and raise questions about the inferred differences between the mainland and island subspecies.


IS THE COMMON TEASEL (DIPSACUS FULLONUM) CARNIVOROUS OR WAS FRANCIS DARWIN WRONG?

From: James J. Krupa & J. Matthew Thomas Originally published in Botany https://doi.org/10.1139/cjb-2019-0008

Abstract Francis Darwin first suggested that the common teasel (Dipsacus fullonum L.), a biennial species, might be a carnivorous plant. He suggested that this species acquires nutrients from insects that drown in water-holding cups formed at the base of leaves that surround the stems. Since then, other biologists have made the same claim. To test this we addressed the question: does adding invertebrates as supplemental nutrients to water-filled cups of Dipsacus fullonum influence reproduction or are nutrients only obtained from the soil? We performed two factorial designed experiments (high-nutrient soil vs. low-nutrient soil) × (fed vs. control) to test this. Fed treatments involved either crickets or liquefied animal solution. We performed a third experiment where teasel plants were grown in nutrient deficient standard carnivorous plant soil mix to determine whether prey supplement influenced growth and reproduction. These experiments revealed that soil nutrients alone influence growth and reproduction. More seeds were produced by plants grown in high-nutrient soil; while curiously, a higher percentage of seeds germinated from plants grown in low-nutrient soil. When teasel rosettes were grown in carnivorous plant soil, plants did not grow, produce stems, or flower, even with animal solution. Thus we found no evidence suggesting common teasel is carnivorous.


LOMATIUM RONEORUM (APIACEAE) - A NEW SPECIES FROM WASHINGTON STATE

From: Darrach, M.E. 2018. Lomatium roneorum (Apiaceae), a new species from the east slopes of the Cascade Mountains, Washington State. Phytoneuron 2018-78: 1-12. Published 5 November 2018. ISSN 2153 733X From: Darrach, M.E. 2018. Lomatium roneorum (Apiaceae), a new species from the east slopes of the Cascade Mountains, Washington State. Phytoneuron 2018-78: 1-12. Published 5 November 2018. ISSN 2153 733X

ABSTRACT (abbrev.) Lomatium roneorum Darrach, sp. nov., is a narrowly endemic species of probable conservation concern found growing on friable arkosic sandstone substrates of the lower-middle Eocene Chumstick Formation and Mesozoic acidic metamorphic substrates in Chelan County along the east slope of the Cascade Mountains in central Washington state. The species is morphologically distinct in the genus. Lomatium roneorum is distinguished from the apparently closely related L. cuspidatum Mathias & Constance, which is mostly restricted to ultramafic rock.


KEY TO POSSIBLE CLOSE RELATIVES OF LOMATIUM RONEORUM

1. Small (<12 cm tall) acaulescent (caulescent) plants with or lacking an obvious shallowly-seated simple tuberous root; rarely, if ever, moniliform.

2. Plants tap-rooted, lacking any tuberous swellings; montane plants with irregularly-toothed partially fused leaflets ............................ L. martindalei (Coult. & Rose) Coult. & Rose 2. Plants with an obvious shallowly-seated simple tuber.

3. Plants usually with a single greatly-reduced photosynthetic cauline bract; mature fruit glabrous; plants typically of mid-montane elevations, usually on rocky mesic substrates .......... L. piperi Coult. & Rose 3. Plants lacking a cauline bract; mature fruit finely scabrous or glabrous; plants of rocky or deeper loess-derived soils.

4. Maturing fruits glabrous, usually with a distinct anthocyanic rim; fruit pedicels (2-)4.6-11.7(- 17) mm; open rocky soil habitats .......................... L. canbyi (Coult. & Rose) Coult. & Rose 4. Maturing fruits finely scabrous, lacking an anthocyanic rim; fruiting pedicels (0.6-)0.8-2.3(-3) mm typically of loess-derived deeper soils ........................... L. gormanii (Howell) Coult. & Rose

1. Larger caulescent or acaulescent plants lacking obvious shallowly-seated simple thickened tuber; deeper-seated moniliform or irregular tubers sometimes present.

5. Caulescent plants with umbellets completely lacking involucel bracts; flowers yellow; mature fruit with aspect ratio (2-)3-5(-8) ............................_L. ambiguum (Nutt.) Coult. & Rose 5. Plants with umbellets usually having an involucel; caulescent or acaulescent; fruit aspect ratio usually <3; flowers yellow, white or purple-brownish-purple.

6. Plants with an obvious swelling at the peduncle terminus; ultimate leaflet segments broad, typically with distal coarse teeth; plants usually acaulescent, but may be distinctly caulescent in Chelan and Kittitas counties, WA .............. L. nudicaule (Pursh) Coult. & Rose 6. Plants lacking a swelling at peduncle terminus; ultimate leaflet segments various.

7. Plants smaller, never taller than 40 cm; not bushy in stature

8. Plants glabrous; ultimate leaflet segments (1.6-)6.3-48.1(-98) × (0.9-)1.2-2.9(- 4.3) mm; roots typically tuberous moniliform ............................ L. geyeri (S. Wats.) Coult & Rose 8. Plants hairy; ultimate leaflet segments (0.9-)1.3-5.1(-8.6) × (0.3-)0.4-1.2(-2.3) mm; root typically a tap root, occasionally with an irregular deep-seated tuber .................... L. macrocarpum (Nutt. ex Torr. & Gray) Coult. & Rose

7. Plants robust-larger species occasionally as tall as 1m or more, often bushy in stature.

9. Plants short hairy throughout.

10. Mature fruit (13-)17-24(-32) × (3.5-) 5-8.5(-10) mm; distinctly bushy plants as tall as 1m; restricted to Chelan and Kittitas cos., WA ........................... L. thompsonii (Mathias) Cronq. 10. Mature fruit (7-)11.5-16(-17) mm × (2.5-)3-5(-5.5) mm; slender usually singlestemmed plants throughout east slope of the WA Cascades; ultimate leaflets variably broad (higher elevations) to narrow (lower elevations); plants 2-8 dm. ............ L. brevifolium (Coult. & Rose) Coult. & Rose

9. Plants glabrous or with numerous narrowly triangular to peg-like papillae.

11. Plants with papillae clearly visible under 10x lens.

12. Plants bushy with strong odour when herbage is crushed; papillae widely distributed on plants ..... L. grayi (Coult. & Rose) Coult & Rose 12. Plants not usually bushy; herbage moderately smelling when crushed; papillae usually restricted to leaf veins and rachises.

13. Mature fruit with well-developed pedicels (3.5-)5.4-10.4(-13.8) mm ........................... L. multifidum (Nutt.) McNeill & Darrach 13. Mature fruit with very short (lacking) pedicels (0.6-)0.8-1.8(-2.5) mm ........................... L. dissectum (Nutt.) Mathias & Constance

11. Plants lacking papillae.

14. Plants with mature fruit deflexed; ultimate leaflet segments (7.3-)12-32(-45) × (0.8- )1.9-5.3(-9.2) mm ............................ L. brandegeei (Coult. & Rose) Macbr. 14. Plants with mature fruit ascending to strict on angled pedicels ultimate leaflet segments distinctly smaller.

15. Ultimate leaflets cuspidate; flowers brownish purple; ultramafic substrates ................. L. cuspidatum Mathias & Constance 15. Ultimate leaflets shortly apiculate to blunt, not cuspidate; flowers yellow with irregular russet wash; plants of acidic lithologic substrates ............................ L. roneorum Darrac


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