Crisis Communication Strategies


Statement of Problem

Literature Review

Communication Theories


Jack in the Box
Union Carbide


Team Members

Adamson, J. (1998, October 5). The Denny's discrimination story - and ways to avoid it in your operation. Nation's Restaurant News, 32, 40.

Albrecht, S. (1996). Crisis Management for Self Defense. New York: AMACOM.

Andriole, S. (1985). Corporate Crisis Management. Princeton, NJ: Petrocelli Books

Austin, E. W. (2001). Strategic Public Relations Management: Planning and Managing Effective Communications Programs. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Benoit, L. (1995). Accounting, Excuses, and Apologies: A Theory of Image Restoration Strategies. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press.

Berge, T. (1990). The First 24-Hours. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell, Inc.

Brody, E.W. (1991). Managing Communication Processes: From Planning to Crisis Response. New York, NY: Praeger Publishers.

Broom, G., Center, A., & Cutlip, S. (1994). Effective Public Relations, (7th ed.). Prentice-Hall Inc.

Byars, C. (1986, January 29). Challenger Explodes/Shuttle falls into ocean; crew apparently killed. Houston Chronicle, A1.

Chin, T., Naidu, S., Ringel, J., & Snipes, W. (1998). Denny's: Communication amidst a discrimination case. Business Communication Quarterly, 61, 180-197.

Coombs, T. W. (1995). Choosing the right words: The development of guidelines for the selection of the "appropriate" crisis-response strategies. Management Communication Quarterly, 8 (4), 447-476.

Coombs, T. W. (1999). Ongoing Crisis Communication: Planning, Managing, and Reporting. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Dailey, P. (1998, August 15). On a wing and a prayer. Restaurants & Institutions, 108, 10.

Delaney, B. (April 25, 2002). When the crisis strikes: Turning a public image disaster into triumph. Retrieved from

Denny's. (1993a, personal communication, March 25, 1993)

Denny's. (1993b, personal communication, March 25, 1993)

Denny's. (1993c, personal communication, April 1, 1993)

Denny's. (2002, May 10). Diversity programs. http://www.advantica-

Dougherty, D. (1992). Crisis Communication: What Every Executive Needs to Know. New York: Walker.

Faircloth, A. (1998, August 3). Guess who's coming to Denny's. Fortune, 138, 108-110.

Faye, R. (1996, May 13). Denny's changes its spots. Fortune, 133, 133-150.

Fink, S. (1986). Crisis Management: Planning for the Inevitable. New York, NY: American Management Association.

Fishman, C. (1986, June 12). Mulloy says NASA 'took step too far'. Washington Post, p.A2

Fishman, D.A. (1999). ValuJet 592: Crisis Communication Theory Blended and Extended. Communication, 47 (4), 345-371.

Goff, R. (1999). Coming Clean. Forbes, 163 (10), 156-158. Retrieved May 8, 2002, from Academic Search Elite.

Heath, R. (April, 30, 2002). Effective problem and crisis management - six situation scrutiny rules. Retrieved from

Higgins, K., (1995). Advanced Planning Needed to Cope with Crises. Marketing News, 19 (4), 14-15.

Hodges, A. (1986, January 29). CNN aired tragedy as it happened; 3 networks interrupted programs. Houston Chronicle, A26.

Infante, D., Rancer, A., & Womack, D. (1997). Building Communication Theory. (3rd ed.). Prospect Heights, IL.: Waveland.

Kaplan, T. Pennsylvania State University. Retrieved May 12, 2002, from

Keyton, J. (2001). Communication Research: Asking Questions, Finding Answers. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.

Knight-Ridder Newspapers, (1986, March 6). NASA says O-ring never fully tested. Houston Chronicle, A2.

Kurzman, D., (1987). A Killing Wind: Inside Union Carbide and the Bhopal Catastrophe. New York: McGraw-Hill Company.

Liddle, A. (1997). Jack in the Box springs forward on food safety issue. Nation's Restaurant News, 31, 226.

Marcus, A. A., & Goodman, R. S. (1991). Victims and shareholders: The dilemmas of presenting corporate policy during a crisis. Academy of Management Journal, 34, 281-305.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (1986 January). Space shuttle mission STS-51L (Release No. 86-5) [press kit].

Pauchant, T. C., & Mitroff, I.I. (1992). Transforming the crisis-prone organization: Preventing individual, organizational, and environmental tragedies. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Reagan, R. (1986). President Reagan's speech on the Challenger Disaster. Retrieved May 10, 2002, from http//

Redburn, T. (1986, February 28). Most Americans Still back shuttle program, poll says. Los Angeles Times, A2.

Rousseau, R. (1997, April1). New Denny's ads welcome blacks. Restaurants & Institutions, 107, 22.

Sallee, R. (1996, January 17). Remembering Challenger; Most of us still recall where we were and what we were doing the morning the shuttle exploded. Houston Chronicle, A1.

Sellnow, T. L. (1993). Scientific argument in organizational crisis communication: The case of Exxon. Argumentation & Advocacy, 30 (1), 28-43.

Sellnow, T. L. & Ulmer, R. R. (1995). Ambiguous argument as advocacy in organizational crisis communication. Argumentation & Advocacy, 31 (3), 138-150. Retrieved May 8, 2002, from Academic Search Elite database.

Sellnow, T. L. & Seeger, M. (2001). Exploring the boundaries of crisis communication: The case of the 1997 Red River Valley flood. Communication Studies, 52 (2), 154-169.

Sellnow, T.L., & Brand, J.D., Establishing the Structure of Reality. Journal of Applied Communication Research 29 (3) 278-296

Setting the food safety standard. Retrieved May 8, 2002, from

Shrivastava, P., (1987). Bhopal: Anatomy of a Crisis. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.

Slater, J., Wentz, L. (1999). Coke taps publicis to stanch crisis. Advertising Age, 70 (26), 50.

Soeder, J. (1993). Anatomy of an avoidable tragedy. Restaurant Hospitality, 77, 34.

Ulmer, R. R. (2001). Effective crisis management through established stakeholder relationships: Malden Mills as a case study. Management Communication Quarterly, 14 (4), 590-615.

Ulmer, R. R. & Sellnow, T. L. (2000). Consistent questions of ambiguity in organizational crisis communication: Jack in the Box as a case study. Journal of Business Ethics, 25, 143-155.

Washinton: The Commission (1986). Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident. Report to the President, 1, 164-177.

Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (1990). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster Inc.

Wilkins, L., (1987) Shared Vulnerability: The Media and American Perceptions of the Bhopal Disaster. New York: Greenwood Press.

Wilson, S. R., Cruz, M. G., Marshall, L. J., & Rao, N. (1993). An attribution analysis of compliance-gaining interactions. Communication Monographs, 60, 352-372.

DoD Joint Course in Communication, Class 02-C, Team 1