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Descriptions of the sites are linked by this graphic () to previously appearing daily descriptions. If that link failed in my monthly checking of the links, the following symbol will be shown instead (). Particularly authoritative sites are marked with an exclamation point ( - I am still in the process of adding these). All links were last checked on 9 June 1999 (Total links checked: 3015) by CyberSpyder Link Check. This month's entries are resting in a temporary file until the end of the month.


Jump to a New Subject Topic:  
Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections (SPNHC) - organization of individuals interested in the development and preservation of natural history collections, including herbarium collections for plants
Index Nominum Supragenericorum Plantarum Vascularium - Valid names above the generic level
Virtual Field Herbarium - promotes constructing field guides to document current diversity and support sustainable development
Fairchild Tropical Garden Virtual Herbarium - already contains 50,000 specimens online, including nearly 3,200 palms
What Tree Is That? (Arbor Day Fnd) - interactive online dichotomous key for Eastern, Central and Western US tree identification
Seed Identification (UKy) - images and information on seeds of some common grasses, legumes, weed and vegetable species
Herbaria and Herbarium Specimens (U. Toronto) - what herbaria do, how they are being modernized, and other questions
Scientific Names: How to Say Them - pronunciation guide for scientific Latin
PhyloCode - developing rules governing phylogenetic nomenclature along with a terminological glossary
UBC Botanical Garden and Centre for Plant Research - University of British Columbia information, news feeds,
Classification of Life on Earth at Iziko Museums - Iziko Museums of Cape Town's site on kingdoms of animals, fungi and plants
Deep Time Project - project is to integrate angiosperm phylogenies of living and extinct plants
Deep Green - Green Plant Phylogeny Research Coordination Group - databases, matrices, news, discussions and the Tree of Life discribing green plant phylogeny
Index to Plant Chromosome Numbers (IPCN) - sporophytic, gametophytic and base chromosome counts
BioCASE - Biological Collection Access Service for Europe - unified database for European collections
University of Iowa Herbarium - the hows and whys of plant collecting, herbarium specimen prepartion, plant handling and data storage
Canadian Biodiversity - representatives are mapped, often shown, from members of plants and other kingdoms as well
Ozarks Regional Herbarium - images of flowering plants, ferns & fern allies, atlas, herbarium news
Missouri Botanical Garden Field Techniques Manual - information about specimen collection, drying & preserving plants, herbarium records, also in Spanish & French
Botanical Word Meanings and Name Derivations - word meanings and name derivations of species epithets and famous California collectors
Curiosities of Biological Nomenclature - information about the conventions of plant names and naming plants
Deep Green Hyperbolic Trees - interactive phylogenetic tree of green life
Specimen MAnagement System for California Herbaria (SMASCH) Project - model herbarium database for California plants
A List of World Herbaria - international listing of herbarium web sites
Charlie's Mid-Atlantic Plant Identification Guide - plant IDs, quizzes, taxomony links
Proposals to Conserve and/or Reject Plant Names - database of challenged scientific names
US Botanical Type Specimen Register - United States National Herbarium (US) collection information
Glossary of Roots of Botanical Names - dictionary of botanical word roots
Threatened Plants of the World - rare, endangered, vulnerable, and extinct plants
Linnaean Plant Name Typification Project - Catalogue of type designations of Linnaean names.
The Linnean Herbarium at the Swedish Museum of Natural History - herbarium sheets of many type specimens from Linnaeus
Multisite Living Collections Searches - search for living plants
Index Herbariorum - search for herbaria and contact persons
Laboratory of Plant Systematics - site with carefully selected systematics web links
Willi Hennig Society - cladistics software, Cladistics and a literature database
Racist Relics: An Ugly Blight On Our Botanical Nomenclature - magazine article
WHACHAMACALIT! The Common Name - dictionary of common names
The Torrey Botanical Society Online - Website of the Torrey Botanical Society, New York.
Phylogenetic Visualization - demo site on how to display cladistic data
New York Botanical Garden Vascular Plant Type Catalog - type specimen database of NYBG
Phylogeny and Reconstructing Phylogenetic Trees - programs for illustrating cladistics trees
Peter Bostock's Botanical Latin Home Page - Latin translation program
Stokes Tropicals - online plant catalog with plant images and information
World Species List - Animals Plants Microbes - checklists and diversity sites worldwide
Fun Science Gallery: Herbarium - plant collecting tutorial
Omnicyber Plant Family Key - online taxonomic dichotomous key
The Jade Glue Theory - A manual for the art of plant mounting.
The Charles B. Graves Herbarium at Connecticut College - Database of the Charles B. Graves Herbarium at Connecticut College
Botanic Descriptions of Leaf Shapes Quiz - tests leaf apical, basal, overall shape and margins
Species 2000 - Indexing the world's known species - all known species of organisms including plant fossils will eventually be included
Plant Names Project - implementation of a project for the 2000s
Families: Classification of Plants & Animals -beginning level on taxonomic units
National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) - metasite of myriad of databases, including alien invader species
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) - database of scientifically valid names ot taxa
Bromeliad Society International - share a vast image collection, seeds, register cultivars, share research and gardening tips, publish, share information
Grass Genera of Texas - checklist and illustrated dichotomous key to the Poaceae (or Grass Family, =Gramineae)
Stapeliads: Orchids of the Succulent World - carrion pollinated flies with beautiful flowers
Interactive Key to the Flowering Plant Families of Jamaica - a Java-based interactive key to families
Great Petaluma Desert: Home of the Fat Plants - view South African natives and other pachyform plants
Native Orchids of the United States - species lists for each of the 50 states, Canada, Mexico and Greenland
Know Your Grasses (Texas-based) - Texas grassland vegetation
Malvaceae.Info - information and images on Malvaceae (mallow family) and other plants
Jardin d'Oiseaux Tropicaux - French national collections of yuccas and cactuses
Families of Vascular Plants, BOT307 (U. Toronto) - a good introduction to vascular plant families with descriptions and images
Bamboo - images for many major bamboo genera, with notes, slide shows, cooking instructions/recipes
Mammillaria: All About Mammillaria Cactus - images, descriptions, growing tips, maps and forums
Orchid Overview - a nice summary of noteworthy orchids from around the world
Gasteria Reference Collection - essays, field accounts, photos, notes
Cactaceae.Net - image database about cactuses and other succulents
NOVA: Orchid Hunter - orchid images, adaptations and famous amateur scientists from history
International Palm Society - information, images, links and selected articles on palms
Agave Image Site - massive Agave image site arranged by topic and species
Agaveweb - all about Agave, from identification to gardening
International Network for the Improvement of Banana and Plantain - everything you wanted to know about bananas, their propagation, germplasm and eventually genome
Malvaceae Pages - resource page for images, generic descriptions, classification
Internet Orchid Species Photo Encyclopedia - photos collected from collector/growers around the world
Malvaceae Pages - resource page for images, generic descriptions, classification
Festuca of North America - fescue grass site, includes nomenclature, descriptions, images
Cucurbitaceae and the Cucurbit Network - everything you wanted to know about pickles, cucumbers, pumpkins, squashes, goards, zuccini pages
Angiosperm DNA C-Values Database - quantitative DNA amounts in picograms and megabasepairs (mbp)
Some Malvaceae in Brazil - images of Hibiscus, Abutilon, Pavonia, others
PACSOA - Palm and Cycad Societies of Australia - digital images, nomenclature, common names and culture conditions for hundreds of plants
Native Orchids of Canada - illustrated database on Canadian orchids
Grass Images from Texas A & M Bioinformatics Working Group - classical drawings of 389 Poaceae, including spikelet details
John C. Semple- WAT Herbarium - Aster research by J.C.Semple.
Bromeliário Cairé - bromeliad site with pictures of Brazilian plants
Virtual Palm Encyclopedia - dichotomous keys, biology, evolution and links
Floraguide - links, forum, searcher site, photographs
Spectacular Diversity of New Zealand Plants - introductory biodiversity site
International Bulb Society - information and pictures of world plants with bulbs
Wildflowers - forums, calendar, dealers, FAQ and glossary
Echinocereus Online - Online magazine for the genus Echinocereus.
Biology 211: Flowering Plant Taxonomy - Photographically illustrated introduction to flowering plant taxonomy
Cacti and other Succulents that are Hardy in Denmark - Germination and cultivation of Yucca and hardy cacti
Anthurium Primer - definitive Anthurium site, Araceae
The Geraniaceae Group - newsletter, links, bookstore and extensive photo gallery
Cacti and Computer - nomenclature of cacti, with cactus and succulent links
Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database - guide to common names and species synonyms
Spanish Moss- Its Nature, History, and Uses - Information central for Spanish Moss, Tillandsia usneoides
Gesneriad Reference Web - images, info and links
Systematics of the Cyclanthaceae Systematics of Cyclanthaceae including revision of the genus Sphaeradenia.
Taxonomy of Landscape Plants - nomenclature & identification site with database of ornamental plants; useful taxonomic links
The Charms of Duckweed - everything you wanted to know about duckweed, including classroom exercises for K-12 or college
Brasilian Orchids - photographs, breeding, floral anatomy
Asclepiad Page - The Carrion Flowers - photos and links
The NCCPG National Collection of Phlomis -The National collection of Phlomis in Gloucestershire, England.
Trees and Shrubs of Iowa State University - encyclopedic guide to midwest trees
Piperaceae Home Page - Introduction to and chemistry of Piperaceae
Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research and Australian National Herbarium - information about Australian endemics, includes growing them
Atlas of the Flora of New England - an online flora
The Cyclamen Society {LF}
International Organization for Plant Information (IOPI) - databases, host to GlobalPlant Checklist Project and Database of Plant Databases
Tropical Fruit News Magazine Online - online periodical with articles
Linda's Orchid Page - orchid flowers, photos, species & common name database, links
BOTN301 - Taxonomy of Flowering Plants - class notes, virtual tours, useful lab exercises and notes at Texas A & M
Vegetative Characteristics Used in Taxonomy Keys - exercises and glossary of morphology terms for angiosperms
World Wide Flowering Plant Family Identification Key - a checklist of 174 morphological characteristics and 6 geographical regions
Reproductive Characteristics Used in Taxonomy Keys - exercises and glossary of morphology terms for angiosperms
Missouri Botanical Garden - Research, education, images, virtual tours, floras, databases
Vascular Plant Families Photographic site (University of Hawaii) - over 225 families represented
Genus of the Week - Features information about a new plant each week
Flowering Plant Families - required families for beginning botany students with characters and illustrations
Seagrass - taxonomy, distribution, references and large collection of images
Scientific information on Chile Peppers - Photos, capsaicinoid chemistry and uses of hot peppers (genus Capsicum)
PBIO 250 Lecture Notes - Plant Taxonomy - Summary of classification schemes, selected plant families, nice external links
Flowerbase Image Database - About 7,000 color photos (multilingual Dutch site) good for translations of common names (!)
Dendrology Page (FNR 225) - Identify twigs and shrubs, dictionary
TreeBASE - Database of Phylogenetic Knowledge - Access published phylogenetic trees from the literature
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh - Gardens and European searchable database
Flora of North America - Site of ambitious project to catalog all plants of America
University and Jepson Herbaria of UC-Berkeley - Model herbarium and database site
Index Nominum Genericorum - Valid genera and synonyms
Society for Growing Australian Plants - Indigenous plants
American Bamboo Society - About bamboos
Stein's Virtual Herbarium - on the Web
Biota of North America Program (BONAP) - Checklist to the North American vascular plant flora
Indices Nominum Supragenericorum Plantarum Vascularium - Valid names above the generic level
Journey into the World of Cladistics - A routine technique in modern systematics
Monocots versus Dicots
Aquatic Plants
Orchids of Wisconsin - An Interactive Flora - Online key
Basic Botany images
Flora of Europe - Photos, family and genus descriptions
Australian National Botanic Gardens Biodiversity Server
The Families of Flowering Plants - Authoritative WWW angiosperm systematics site
PLANTS Database of the NRCS - plant names, symbols, distributions and attributes
Angiosperm Systematics - Authoritative WWW angiosperm systematics site
FUCHSIA - The Swedish Fuchsia Society
Royal Botanic Gardens Kew
The Wollemi Pine — a very rare discovery - all you ever wanted to know about Wollemi nobilis, Araucariaceae
NOVA Online: Methuselah Tree - life cycle and ecology of the oldest plant, a gymnosperm - bristlecone pine
PACSOA - Palm and Cycad Societies of Australia - digital images, nomenclature, common names and culture conditions for hundreds of plants
BOTNET: North Carolina Botanical Information Network - model herbarium site for online data storage, currently gymnosperms
Gymnosperm Database - Descriptions of 1,000 taxa.
Virtual Cycad Encyclopedia - dichotomous keys, biology, evolution and links to these primitive gymnosperms
Gymnosperm Database - taxonomy, ethnobotany, images, age and large specimens for numerous species
Catalog of North American Gymnosperms - conifer and taxad herbarium data
Gymnosperms of Australia and New Zealand - cycads, conifers, taxads with maps, drawings, photos
Flora of North America - Site of ambitious project to catalog all plants of America
Ancient Bristlecone Pine
Trees of the Pacific Northwest
Pteridology (study of ferns & fern allies):
Giant Horsetails - all about the giant Equisetums
San Diego Fern Society - information about growing ferns, their biology, life cycle and ask questions at Fern Central
Pteridophyte DNA C-Values Database - quantitative DNA amounts in picograms and megabasepairs (mbp) in ferns & fern allies (horsetails, club moss, spike moss, etc)
Leptosporangiate Ferns - life cycle and phylogeny of Filicalean ferns
Ferns from the Vercors (France) - text and images of ferns and fern allies
Flora of North America - Site of ambitious project to catalog all plants of America
The C-Fern - A Plant for Teaching and Research - Use of Ceratopteris as a model system
American Fern Society (AFS) - Fern information, spore exchange and links
Bryology (study of mosses & liverworts):
Bryophyte Flora of North America - this web site coordinates and facilitates preparation of chapters for volumes 27, 28 and 29 of the Flora of North America (FNA)
Moss Life Cycle - sexual reproductive cycle of pines, Phylum Bryophyta
Res Botanica - botanical Latin, Bryophyte Flora of North America, bryological information, chestnuts, selected essays, floristics, history, and miscellaneous topics
Secret Life of Mosses, Ferns, Flowers, Pines - instructional computer animations on plant life cycles
Phylum Bryophyta - Mosses - descriptions and illustrations of some common & less common mosses
Phylum Anthocerophyta - Hornworts - descriptions and illustrations of some common & less common hornworts
Spore Dispersal in Bryophytes - spore dissemination of mosses & liverworts, includes images and mechanisms
Mosses and Liverworts in Wales - introduction to types of mosses & liverworts, their habitat and species descriptions
Hidden Forest: Bryophytes - descriptions and images of mosses, liverworts and hornworts, including family lists
Cryptogamic Collections at the Swedish Museum of Natural History - scanned specimens of lichens and database of mushroom, algae and bryophyte collections
Catalog of North American Bryophytes - mosses, liverworts and hornworts
Cryptogams in Depth - images of fungi, bryophytes, lichens and slime molds
World of Science: Mitosis - overview of nuclear and cell division
The Canadian Sphagnum Peat Moss Association - A peat moss resource site by the Canadian Sphagnum Peat Moss Association
American Bryological and Lichenological Society (ABLS) - Moss and lichen info and links
Why Does Moss Only Grow on One Side of a Tree? - A child's Web site
Lichen determination keys available on INTERNET - links to dichotomous keys for identification of lichens
Lichenology (study of lichens):
An Introduction to Lichens - beginning botany course level concise examination of lichens and their alga-fungus symbiosis
Lichens, Tardigrades, and SO2 - Lichens as indicators of pollution, especially sulfur dioxide
Lichen Information System - links to sites on lichen biology, collections, congresses and societies
Hidden Forest: Lichens - images and descriptions of many lichen taxa
Cryptogamic Collections at the Swedish Museum of Natural History - scanned specimens of lichens and database of mushroom, algae and bryophyte collections
North American Lichen Project - ethnobotanical interfaces and basic biology are covered here
Fun with Lichens - Database, images and species synoptic key
Phycology (study of algae):
UTEX Culture Collection of Algae - collection of over 3200 mostly freshwater alga with about 150 extremophilic algae
Australian Freshwater Algae (BGT) - educational information on what an algae is and does, how algae are collected and cultured
E-Flora BC: An Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia - diversity of plants in the Canadian province of British Columbia
Pfiesteria and Harmful Algal Blooms in the Mid-Atlantic - Pfiesteria is a serious algae bloom species in the Atlantic Ocean in estuaries in North Carolina and Delaware and in the Chesapeake Bay
South Florida Periphyton Research - databases on diatoms and other algae, research project information on the Everglades, paleoecology, mangrove algae and nutrient effects
Cyanophyta - Cyanobacteria - formerly known as bluegreen algae. Site provides great detail on pigments, nitrogen fixation, diversity, common genera and their ecological role
Chlorophyta - Green Algae - pigments, morphology, anatomy, life cycles and ecology
Phaeophyta - Brown Algae about brown algae: their morphology, anatomy, life cycles and ecology
Rhodophyta - The Red Algae - about red algae, their life cycles and ecology
NOVA: Deep Sea Invasion - a marine alga presents a classic example of the danger of invasive species
BL Web: Growing Dinoflagellates at Home - full instructions, proposed experiments, images and movies are provided
Hawaiian Reef Algae - classroom site for marine algology
Freakin Fucus -- Guide To Seaweeds and Phycology - algae of England, including structure, glossary, information on some genera
AlgaeBase - scientific names and distribution of algae, cyanobacteria, seaweeds, seagrasses
DINOFLAJ - Dinoflagellate Classification Database - suprageneric classification, index to fossil and extant genera
Protist Image Data - cell structure, life history, classification and nomenclature of algae and other protists
Kelp Forest and Rocky Subtitle Habitats - ecological reports on flora & fauna of kelp beds
Littoral Zone: Fucus Fertilization - fertilization in a marine brown algae, Fucus serratus, serrated wrack
Kelp Forests - taxonomy, ecology and succession of kelp beds
Cryptogamic Collections at the Swedish Museum of Natural History - scanned specimens of lichens and database of mushroom, algae and bryophyte collections
Biology of Green Euglenoids - taxonomic keys, images and morphology of Korean Euglena, Lepocinclis and Trachelomonas
The Chlamydomonas Teaching Center - Resource guide to the culture and use of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii for teaching and research.
Great Lakes Diatoms - introduction to freshwater diatoms with numerous photomicrographs
Photomicrographs of Phytoplankton at the Clemson University Aquaculture Facility - Photomicrographs of some of the major phytoplankton.
Aquaculture Facility Algae Guide - photomicrographs of freshwater algae
Smallest Page on the Web - desmid and diatom microscopy site
Paleopalynology, Fossil Pollen, Spore, Algae Home Page - intro site to the study of palynology w/dinoflagellate page
Pfiesteria piscicida Page - environmental danger from a toxic dinoflagellate
Harmful Algae Page
Algae Home Page, Smithsonian Institution - collections, classification & economic uses
Home of the Fossil Coralline Algae (Corallinaceae: Rhodophyta) - anatomy, distribution of red coralline algae
Why Owens Lake is Red! - Halophilic organisms in salt lakes and playas.
Marine Botany - Algal and benthic marine habitats of Monterey Bay
Cyanosite - bluegreen algae reference and experimental protocol site
Geniculate Coralline Red Algae
The Diatom Collection of the California Academy of Sciences
Michael R. Martin's Phytoplankton Images Library - Best site for freshwater algae micrographs
Basic Botany images - A few algal pictures
Protist Image Database
Protist Database List
Mycology (study of fungi):
Mycolog: Fungi -The Fifth Kingdom - online companion to a mycological encyclopedia
MushroomExpert.Com - many details on collecting mushrooms, identifying poisonous ones
Fungi of California - numerous species, photos and links
World of Dermatophytes: A Pictorial - the fungus among us
Mycology Society of America Slide Collection - habit and microscopic images of a diversity of fungus-related images, including ascomycetes, basidiomycetes, and many more
Systematic botany and Mycology: Fungal Databases - free USDA databases on fungi, nomenclature, distribution and literature
MycoKey - site on fungi of Denmark with systematics, online taxonomic key and database
Forest Fungi of New Zealand - encyclopedic Hidden Forest site on fungus biology, ecology
Truffle.Org - dichotomous keys to truffles and ectomycorrhizae
Forest Slime Molds of New Zealand - descriptions, life cycle, and images of cellular and plasmodial slime molds
Agaricales of the Hawaiian Islands - Documentation of mushroom species in the Hawaiian Archipelago.
Cryptogamic Collections at the Swedish Museum of Natural History - scanned specimens of lichens and database of mushroom, algae and bryophyte collections
Mycology Labs at the University of Tennessee - botanical nomenclature tutorial, glosssary of -onyms, Pleurotus systematics, molecular techniques protocols for field work of fungi, and links
The Mushroom Genus Laccaria in North America - fungi, taxomonic key, phylogeny
Mycorrhiza Information Exchange - plant-fungus symbiosis site with lots of features
North American Mycological Association - Organization dedicated to the study and enjoyment of mushrooms.
Mycorrhiza Information Exchange Web Site - bibliography of fungi, hosts & symbiosis
MyxoWeb - slime molds, myxomycetes
INRA Scientific Database Servers - links, databases, DNA, mychorrhizae, insects
Fungi Photos - Hobbist's JPEGs of Welsh fungi
Introduction to the Fungi - Introductory WWW site on fungi
WWW Mycology Resources - Authoritative fungus server
Microbiology (study of prokaryotes)
The Microbial Underground - Medical, Microbiological and Molecular Biological material on the internet.
Bacteriology 303 Main Page - Course materials and study aids for bacteriology
Virology (study of viruses)
Descriptions of Plant Viruses (DPV) - characteristics and biology of over 390 plant viruses (some with fully sequenced genomes)
Plant Viruses - ICTV index to virus classification and nomenclature
The Bacteriophage Ecology Group - Phage ecology and evolutionary biology for viruses of bacteria
Plant Virus Site - Images of many major plant viruses in the TEM
WWW Virology Servers - Authoritative virus server
Paleontology, Paleobiology, Paleobotany, Evolution
Virtual Paleobotany Laboratory - geological history of plants and tools to understand paleobotany
The Rhynie Chert and Its Flora - Descriptions of early land plants preserved in the Rhynie Cherts
Paleopalynology, Fossil Pollen, Spore, Algae Home Page - intro site to the study of palynology w/dinoflagellate page
Links for Palaeobotanists - paleobotany links to everything!
Palaeobotanical Research Group - History of Palaeozoic Forests site
Mazon Creek Plant Fossils
Plant Fossils of West Virginia - Carboniferous lycopod, sphenophyte and fern images
Bot 403-Plant Evolution - Example of an course site with a slightly expanded syllabus
International Organisation of Palaeobotany
Introduction to the Spermatophytes - Progymnosperms, cycads and anthophytes
UCMP Web Time Machine - Paleontological WWW site. Time scale, some plants.
American Fern Society (AFS) - Fern paleobotanical information and links
Trees of Life, Plant Kingdom:
BL14A BIODIVERSITY I: The Plant Kingdom - Introduction to plant biodiversity with an evolutionary perspective.
Albion College Vascular Plant Image Gallery - photographs, subdivision and family descriptions
The Tree of Life Home Page - Survey of diversity
A Survey of the Plant Kingdoms - Pictorial survey of diversity

This service is organized by Scott Russell through the Department of Botany and Microbiology of the University of Oklahoma. If you have any comments for the improvement this page or nominations for links, please contact me by email (srussell@ou.edu).

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