3 dB Down. (2005). Retrieved November 29, 2005 from
the World Wide Web: http://www.3dbdown.com/.
Zaichkowski, J.L. (1985). Measuring the involvement of construction. Journal
of Consumer Research, 12, 341-352.
Andersen, K. & Clevenger, T. (1963). A summary of experimental research
in ethos. Speech Monographs, 30(2), 59-78.
Beeson, P. (2005). Blogging: What is it? And how has it affected the media? Quill, 93(2),
Blog [Encyclopedia entry]. In Wikipedia. Retrieved November 15, 2005
from the World Wide Web: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blog.
Burgoon, J.K., & Hale, J.L. (1987). Validation and measurement of relational
communication. Communication Monographs, 54, 19-41.
Burgoon, M., Cohen, M., Miller, M.D. & Montgomery, C.L. (1978). An empirical
test of a model of resistance to persuasion. Human Communication Research,
Chaddock, G. (2005, October 27). Their clout rising, blogs are courted by Washington’s
elite. Retrieved November 27, 2005 from the World Wide Web: http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:YDszyBpWWAUJ:news.yahoo.com/s/csm/20051027/ts_csm/ablog+Chaddock+blogs+Christian+Science+Monitor&hl=en.
Cherkoff, J. (2004, November 1). Ready for the 5th estate? Financial Times. Retrieved
November 12, 2005 from the World Wide Web: http://www.collaboratemarketing.com/modernmarketing/2004/11/strongready_for.html.
Claburn, T. (2005, September 1). Army Chief of Staff calls for more oversight
of military bloggers. Information Week. Retrieved November 26, 2005
from the World Wide Web: http://www.informationweek.com/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=170102708.
Cohen, B. (1963). The press and foreign policy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton
Crain, R. (2004). Consumer control issue is marketing’s two-edged sword. Advertising
Age, 75(44), 16.
Dillard, J. P., Plotnick, C. A., Godbold, L.C., Freimuth, V. S., & Edgar,
T. (1996). The multiple affective outcome of AIDS PSAs: Fear appeals do more
than scare people. Communication Research, 23, 44-72.
Dillon, C. (2004, October 8). PR must gear itself to face bloggers as they reshape
news. Media Asia, p. 19.
Entman, R. (1991). Framing U.S. coverage of international news: Contrasts in
narratives of the KAL and Iran Air incidents. Journal of Communications,
Fernando, A. (2004). Big blogger is watching you! Reputation management in an
opinionated, hyperlinked world. Communication World, 21(4), 10-11.
Finer, J. (2005, August 12). The new Ernie Pyles: On internet blogs, soldiers
in Iraq offer up inside story on the war. Washington Post, p. A01.
Gaziano, C., & McGrath, K. (1986). Measuring the concept of credibility. Journalism
Quarterly, 63, 451-462.
Gilbert, A. (2005, November 15). As teens embrace blogs, schools sound an alarm. CNET
News.com. Retrieved November 15, 2005 from the World Wide Web: http://news.com.com/As+teens+embrace+blogs,+schools+sound+an+alarm/2100-1025_3-5952141.html.
Gladstone, B. (2005, April 29). I wanna be a soldier blogger. [Interview transcript]. NPR’s
On the Media. Retrieved November 29, 2005, from the World Wide Web: http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:ULNp_sCUHzkJ:www.onthemedia.org/transcripts/transcripts_042905_blogger.html.
Glance, N. (2005). The Political blogosphere and the 2004 U.S. election:
Divided they blog. Paper presented at the annual Workshop on the Weblogging
Ecosystem, Japan. Retrieved November 30, 2005 from the World Wide Web: http://www.blogpulse.com/papers/2005/AdamicGlanceBlogWWW.pdf.
Global Voices Online. (2005). Berkman Center for Internet and Society at
the Harvard Law School. Retrieved November 20, 2005 from the World Wide
Godwin-Jones, R. (2003). Emerging Technologies: Blogs and wikis, environments
for on-line collaboration. Learning and Language Technology, 7(2),
Goffman, E. (1974). Frame analysis: An essay on the organization of experience. Cambridge:
Harvard University Press.
Haiman, F. (1949). An experimental study of the effects of ethos in public speaking. Speech
Monographs, 16(2), 190-202.
Heidt, M. (2005). Froggy Ruminations [Web log]. Retrieved November 21,
2005 from the World Wide Web: http://froggyruminations.blogspot.com/.
Hewitt, H. (2004, March 12). Rise of the milblogs. The Weekly Standard. Retrieved
November 12, 2005 from the World Wide Web: http://www.weeklystandard.com/Content/Public/Articles/000/000/003/840fvgmo.asp?pg=1.
Hockenberry, J. (2005, August). The blogs of war. Wired Magazine, 13.08.
Retrieved November 12, 2005 from the World Wide Web: http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/13.08/milblogs_pr.html.
Hovland, C. & Weiss, W. (1951). The influence of source credibility on communication
effectiveness. Public Opinion Quarterly, 15(4), 635-650.
Irvine, M. (2005, November 2). Survey: One in five teens have own blogs. Associated
Press. Retrieved November 14, 2005 from the World Wide Web: http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:ZqDS90XYlyEJ:news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20051103/ap_on_hi_te/teen_blogging+Martha+Irvine+blogs+and+teens&hl=en.
Iyengar, S. (1991). Is anyone responsible? How television frames political
issues. Chicago: The
University of Chicago Press.
Iyengar, S. (1990). Shortcuts to political knowledge: The role of selective attention,
and accessibility. In J. A. Ferejohn & J. H. Kuklinski (Eds.), Information
and democratic processes (pp. 160–185). Urbana:University of Illinois
Johnson, T. & Kaye, B. (1998). Cruising is believing? Comparing Internet
and traditional sources on media credibility measures. Journalism & Mass
Communication Quarterly, 75(2), 325-341.
Johnson, T. & Kaye, B. (2004a). For whom the Web toils: How Internet experience
predicts Web reliance and credibility. Atlantic Journal of Communication,
Johnson, T. & Kaye, B. (2000). Using is believing: The influence of reliance
on the credibility of online political information among politically interested
Internet users. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 77(4),
Johnson, T. & Kaye, B. (2004b). Wag the blog: How reliance on traditional
media and the Internet influence credibility perceptions of Weblogs among blog
users. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 81(3), 622-642.
Johnson, T. & Kaye, B. (2002). Webelievability: A path model examining how
convenience and reliance predict online credibility. Journalism and Mass
Communication Quarterly, 79(3), 619-642.
Kiousis, S. (2001). Public trust or mistrust? Perceptions of media credibility
in the information age. Mass Communication & Society, 4(4), 381-403.
Kirtley, J. (2005). The blog and the ban. American Journalism Review, 27(3),
Klein, D., & Burstein, D. (2005). Blog! How the newest media revolution
is changing politics, business, and culture. New York: CDS Books.
Lenhart, A. & Madden, M. (2005, November 2). Teen content creators and consumers. Pew
Internet & American Life Project. Retrieved November 15, 2005 from the
World Wide Web: http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Teens_Content_Creation.pdf.
Lippman, W. (1922). Public Opinion. New York: Macmillan.
McCombs, M., Shaw, D. (1972). The agenda setting function of mass media, Public
Opinion Quarterly, 36, 176-187.
McCroskey, J.C., & Young, T.J. (1981). Ethos and credibility: The construct
and its measurement after three decades. Central States Speech Journal, 32,
Memmott, M. (2005, May 11). “Milbloggers” are typing their place
in history. USA Today. Retrieved November 18, 2005 from the World Wide
Miles, A. (2005). Blogs: Distributed documentaries of the everyday. Metro, 143,
Mudville Gazette, The. (2005). [Web log]. Retrieved November 11, 2005 from the
World Wide Web: http://www.mudvillegazette.com/archives/000359.html.
Palmgreen, P., Wenner, L.A., & Rayborn , J.D., II (1980). Relations between
gratifications sought and obtained: A study of television news. Communication
Research, 7, 161-192.
Parks, B. (2005, November 15). Blogs: An in-depth investigation. Boyd Street
Magazine, 7(3), 30-32.
Perlmutter, D. & Metzgar, E. (2005, November 6). Strange new world. PittsburghLive.com.
Retrieved November 27, 2005 from the World Wide Web, http://pittsburghlive.com/x/tribune-review/opinion/columnists/guests/s_391253.html.
Perlmutter, D., & McDaniel, M. (2005). The ascent of blogging: Old media
report on the new media, but they haven’t figured out how to adapt. Nieman
Reports, 59(3), 60-64.
Petty, R. E., Gleicher, F. & Baker, S.M. (1991). Multiple roles for affect
in persuasion. In J.P. Forgas (Ed.), Emotion and social judgment (pp. 181-200).
New York: Pergamon Press.
Pfau, M., Moy, P., & Szabo, E. (2001). Influence of prime-time television
programming on perceptions of the federal government. Mass Communication & Society,
Pollack, J. (2005). Blogs are not journalism. St. Louis Journalism Review,
Pew Internet and American Life Project. (2005, January). Blog readership
shoots up 58% in 2004. Retrieved November 15, 2005 from the World Wide Web: http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_blogging_data.pdf.
Ratliff, C. (2002). Blogs, blogging, and bloggers: A new electronic discourse.
[Essay]. Retrieved November 12, 2005 from the World Wide Web: http://culturecat.net/files/ReviewEssay.pdf.
Rosenbloom, A. (2004). The Blogosphere. Communications of the ACM, 47(12),
Rosenthal, R. (1984). Meta-analytic procedures for social research.
Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Rosenthal, R. (1987). Judgment studies: Design, analysis, and meta-analysis. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
Rumsfeld, D. (2003, January 14). Donald Rumsfeld’s message – DOD
web site OPSEC discrepancies [Memo]. Retrieved November 15, 2005 from the World
Wide Web: http://www.defenselink.mil/webmasters/policy/rumsfeld_memo_to_DOD_webmasters.html.
Schoomaker, P. (2005, August 23). Chief of Staff of the Army OPSEC guidance [Memo].
Retrieved November 26, 2005 from the World Wide Web: http://www.fas.org/sgp/news/2005/08/usa0805.html.
Schulman, D. (2005, September/October). Columbia Journalism Review. 44(3),
Sifry, D. (2005). State of the blogosphere, October 2005, part 1, on blogosphere
growth. In Sifry’s Alerts. Retrieved November 16, 2005 from the
World Wide Web: http://www.sifry.com/alerts/archives/000343.html.
Simmons, E. (2005). The impact of the weblog: A case study of the United States
and Iran. [Senior thesis]. Ohio State University. Retrieved November 15, 2005
from the World Wide Web: https://kb.osu.edu/dspace/bitstream/1811/371/1/BlogImpact.pdf.
Smith, B. A., & Dillard, J. P. (1997, November). Affect and persuasion:
Evidence for cognitive coloration of message production. Paper presented
at the annual meeting of the National Communication Association, Chicago.
Sudhaman, Arun. (2005, July 1). Double-edged blog power puts marketers on guard. Media
Asia, p. 19.
Sullivan, B. (2005, April 29). Kids, blogs and too much information. MSNBC. Retrieved
November 14, 2005 from the World Wide Web: http://msnbc.msn.com/id/7668788/.
Taylor, C. (2004). High on the blog. MediaWeek, 14(40), 22-25.
Technorati blog tracking count. (2005, November). In Technorati. Retrieved
November 14, 2005 from the World Wide Web: http://www.technorati.com/.
Turnbull, D. (2002, May 17). The blogosphere as coffeehouse. [Web log entry posted
on the Web site Beauty of Gray]. Retrieved November 13, 2005 from the
World Wide Web: http://beautyofgray.blogspot.com/2002_05_12_beautyofgray_archive.html.
Van Lear, C.A., Jr., & Trujillo, N. (1986). On becoming acquainted: A longitudinal
study of social judgment process. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships,
Woods, J. (2005). Digital Influencers. Communication World, 22(1),