Statement of Problem 

Literature Review 

Rationale and  
Research Questions 




     Encroachment is a problem that will undoubtedly cause much consternation to military installations in the future.  As the local community surrounding a military installation continues to grow, so does the installation’s job of acceptance with the non-military citizens it continues to protect.   With an ever shrinking military population, and an increasing civilian population who have no connection whatsoever to the military institution, the widening of the “us and them” gap will only continue to grow.  Research by the Army Operational Noise Management Program has shown that since the end of the cold war, the general public is less tolerant of military noise.  This statistic combined with the urban growth reports surrounding major military installations in the United States is cause for concern.  
     One prime example is Luke Air Force Base, in Glendale, Ariz., a suburb of the nation's  fastest growing city, Phoenix.  Initially the base’s location was 20 miles from the quiet desert town of Phoenix.  Between 1960 and 1990, Phoenix has grown 250 %.  However,      Glendale has experienced a population growth of 844 % during those same years.  Seventy-six % of that growth has been just since 1980.   Compared to the national average of 13.7 %, this rate is astronomical.  Because of urban growth surrounding the base, flight paths, the direction an aircraft can use when taking off or landing at a base, have been reduced from over 25 flight paths in the 1970s to just 7 today.   
     This is just one base too.  The Army Noise Program (1999) reports a 15 % population growth surrounding Fort Bragg, N.C., to as high as a 57 % growth rate surrounding Fort Stewart, Ga.  These facts are considerable when compared to the national average of 13.7 %.  One example, Fort Campbell, Ky., has shown a 26 % population growth between 1980-1996, while noise complaints have gone up over 100 % in the past three years.