OU

Fear Appeals


DoD Joint Course in Communication

Abstract
Introduction
Method
Results
Discussion
References
Full Text
Authors
 
Definitions:
Fear Appeal
Severity

Susceptibility
Response Efficacy
Self-Efficacy
Content Analysis
 

 
Links:
AFIS
AFRTS
Univ. of Okla.
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References


            Armed Forces Radio and Television Service.  (1999).  RTPO: About Us.  Armed Forces Radio and Television Service (Online).  Available: http://www.afrts.osd.mil 

Brehm, J. W. (1966).  A theory of reactance.  New York: Academic Press.

Clarke, R. (1998).  The effect of social marketing and zero-tolerance laws on high-risk behaviors.  Doctoral Dissertation, University of Oklahoma.

Clinton, W. J. (2000). Statement by the President.  Whitehouse website (Online).  Available: http://www.pub.
whitehouse.gov/uri-res/I2R?urn:pdi://oma.eop.gov.us
/2000/10/31/9.text.1

Dillard, J. P. (1994).  Rethinking the study of fear appeals: An emotional perspective.  Communication Theory, 4, 295-323.

Hovland, C., Janis, I., & Kelly, H. (1953).  Communication and persuasion.  New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Janis, I. L., Feshbach, S. (1953).  Effects of fear-arousing communications.  The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 48, 78-92.

Kaid, L. L., Wadsworth, A. J.  (1989).  Content Analysis.  In P. Emmert, L. L. Barker (Eds.), Measurement of communication behavior (pp. 197-217).  New York: Longman.

La Tour, M., & Rotfeld, H. (1997).  There are threats and (maybe) fear-caused arousal: Theory and confusions of appeals to fear and fear arousal itself.  Journal of advertising, 26, 45-61.

Lang, P. J. (1984).  Cognition in emotion: Concept and action.  In C. E. Izard, J. Kagan, & R. B. Zajonc (Eds.), Emotions, cognition, and behavior (pp. 192-226).  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Leventhal, H. (1970).  Findings and theory in the study of fear communications.  In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology, 5, (pp. 119-186).  New York: Academic Press.

Morman, M. (2000).  The influence of fear appeals, message design, and masculinity on menís motivation to perform the testicular self-exam.  Journal of Applied Communication Research, 28, 91-116.

Rogers, R. W. (1975).  A protection motivation theory of fear appeals and attitude change.  Journal of Psychology, 91, 93-114.

Rogers, R. W. (1983).  Cognitive and physiological processes in fear appeals and attitude change: A revised theory of protection motivation.  In J. Cacioppo & R. Petty (Eds.), Social psychophysiology (pp. 153-176).  New York: Guilford.

Witte, K. (1992).  Putting the fear back in fear appeals: The extended parallel process model.  Communication Monographs, 59, 329-349.

Witte, K. (1998). Fear as motivator, fear as inhibitor: Using the extended parallel process model to explain fear appeal successes and failures.  In P. A. Andersen & L. K. Guerrero (Eds.), Handbook of communication and emotion (pp. 424-451).  San Diego: Academic Press.

         Witte, K. & Allen, M. (2000).  A meta-analysis of fear Appeals: Implications for effective public health campaigns.  Health and Education Behavior, 27, 591-615.