Oxo-Aldol of 1-pentene

Because of the large amount of short chain olefins produced from refinery plant, finding new technology to convert olefins to long chain hydrocarbon in a fuel range is being developed. Various reaction routes based on oligomerization, oxidation, and hydroformylaiton reactions are available to the olefin molecules to convert into fuel.

One of the most attractive routes is the catalytic oxo or hydroformylation of olefins to aldehyde using Rh- or Co-based catalyst; followed by aldol condensation of aldehyde with liquid base like NaOH and KOH; and finally deoxygenation of unsaturated aldol derivatives.

In this present work, the hydroformylation of 1-pentene to the mixture of aldehydes will be conducted over the Rh-based catalyst. The main purpose is to investigate the effects of catalyst precursor with intention to improve the conversion rate of 1-pentene and high selectivity toward n-hexanal to obtain high ratio of normal to branched aldehyde. To overcome the
drawbacks like use of hazardous liquid base such as NaOH in a large amount, a concept of using heterogeneous catalyst by impregnated Rh on a solid base will be attemped for carrying out hydroformylation , aldol condensation and deoxygenation in a single pot process. In addition, the catalysts will be characterized, which will provide a better understanding of the multi-step reactions.